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April 25, 2012

Disposal of fracking wastewater poses potential environmental problems

Disposal of fracking wastewater poses potential environmental problems

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Wednesday, April 25, 2012

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A recent study by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the oil and gas industry are creating earthquakes. New information from the Midwest region of the United States points out that these man-made earthquakes are happening more frequently than expected. While more frequent earthquakes are less of a problem for regions like the Midwest, a geology professor from the University of Southern Indiana, Dr. Paul K. Doss, believes the disposal of wastewater from the hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) process used in extracting oil and gas has the possibility to pose potential problems for groundwater.

Map showing significant earthquakes in the Midwest region of the United States. It was analyzed to show links between felt earthquakes and energy development.
Image: United States Geological Survey.

“We are taking this fluid that has a whole host of chemicals in it that are useful for fracking and putting it back into the Earth,” Doss said. “From a purely seismic perspective these are not big earthquakes that are going to cause damage or initiate, as far as we know, any larger kinds of earthquakes activity for Midwest. [The issue] is a water quality issue in terms of the ground water resources that we use.”

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a technique used by the oil and gas industries which inject highly pressurized water down into the Earth’s crust to break rock and extract natural gas. Most of the fluids used for fracking are proprietary, so information about what chemicals are used in the various fluids are unknown to the public and to create a competitive edge.

Last Monday four researchers from the University of New Brunswick released an editorial that sheds light on the potential risks that the current wastewater disposal system could have on the province’s water resources. The researchers share the concern that Dr. Doss has and have come out to say that they believe fracking should be stopped in the province until there is an environ­mentally safe way to dispose the waste wastewater.

“If groundwater becomes contamin­ated, it takes years to decades to try to clean up an aquifer system,” University of New Brunswick professor Tom Al said.

While the USGS group which conducted the study says it is unclear how the earthquake rates may be related to oil and gas production, they’ve made the correlation between the disposal of wastewater used in fracking and the recent upsurge in earthquakes. Because of the recent information surfacing that shows this connection between the disposal process and earthquakes, individual states in the United States are now passing laws regarding disposal wells.

Cquote1.svg The problem is that we have never, as a human society, engineered a hole to go four miles down in the Earth’s crust that we have complete confidence that it won’t leak. Cquote2.svg

—Dr. Paul K. Doss

“The problem is that we have never, as a human society, engineered a hole to go four miles down in the Earth’s crust that we have complete confidence that it won’t leak,” Doss said. “A perfect case-in-point is the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in 2010, that oil was being drilled at 18,000 feet but leaked at the surface. And that’s the concern because there’s no assurance that some of these unknown chemical cocktails won’t escape before it gets down to where they are trying to get rid of them.”

It was said in the study released by the New Brunswick University professors that if fracking wastewater would contaminate groundwater, that current conventional water treatment would not be sufficient enough to remove the high concentration of chemicals used in fracking. The researchers did find that the wastewater could be recycled, can also be disposed of at proper sites or even pumped further underground into saline aquifers.

The New Brunswick professors have come to the conclusion that current fracking methods used by companies, which use the water, should be replaced with carbon diox­ide or liquefied propane gas.

“You eliminate all the water-related issues that we’re raising, and that peo­ple have raised in general across North America,” Al said.

In New Brunswick liquefied propane gas has been used successfully in fracking some wells, but according to water specialist with the province’s Natural Resources De­partment Annie Daigle, it may not be the go-to solution for New Brunswick due its geological makeup.

“It has been used successfully by Corridor Resources here in New Bruns­wick for lower volume hydraulic frac­turing operations, but it is still a fairly new technology,” Daigle said.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is working with U.S. states to come up with guidelines to manage seismic risks due to wastewater. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the EPA is the organization that also deals with the policies for wells.

Oil field located in Lost Hills in California
Image: Arne Hückelheim.

Oil wells, which are under regulation, pump out salt water known as brine, and after brine is pumped out of the ground it’s disposed of by being pumped back into the ground. The difference between pumping brine and the high pressurized fracking fluid back in the ground is the volume that it is disposed of.

“Brine has never caused this kind of earthquake activity,” Doss said. “[The whole oil and gas industry] has developed around the removal of natural gas by fracking techniques and has outpaced regulatory development. The regulation is tied to the ‘the run-of-the-mill’ disposal of waste, in other words the rush to produce this gas has occurred before regulatory agencies have had the opportunity to respond.”

According to the USGS study, the increase in injecting wastewater into the ground may explain the sixfold increase of earthquakes in the central part of the United States from 2000 – 2011. USGS researchers also found that in decades prior to 2000 seismic events that happened in the midsection of the U.S. averaged 21 annually, in 2009 it spiked to 50 and in 2011 seismic events hit 134.

“The incredible volumes and intense disposal of fracking fluids in concentrated areas is what’s new,” Doss said. “There is not a body of regulation in place to manage the how these fluids are disposed of.”

The study by the USGS was presented at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America on April 18, 2012.


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March 31, 2012

News briefs: March 31, 2012

News briefs: March 31, 2012 – Wikinews, the free news source

News briefs: March 31, 2012

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Sunday, April 1, 2012

Wikinews Audio Briefs
Saturday, March 31, 2012
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Today on Wikinews: We briefly recap some of the stories appearing on Wikinews this week and from around the world.

Today is Saturday, March 31, 2012. I am Chad Tew and this is Wikinews.


Wikinews Shorts: March 26, 2012#New leader of Hong Kong chosen while protestors seek ‘true democracy’ (0:28)

Hong Kong elected a new chief executive this week. Leung Chun-ying (Pronounced:L-er-ng Choon Ying) was choosen as the new leader in a controversial election. Pro-democracy demonstrators rallied before the meeting of the election committee and also attempted to storm the voting center. An organizer of the demonstrations criticized Hong Kong as not being a “true democracy.” And pepper spray was used on the demonstrators when the results were announced.

Pope Benedict visits Cuba urging openness, religious freedom (1:00)

Pope Benedict the Sixteenth visited Cuba this week and urged religious freedom and political change. In response, a leader from the council of ministers said no political reform was necessary. The Pope celebrated Mass in Havana, visited several Cuban cities, and met with former President Fidel Castro.

Wikinews Shorts: March 26, 2012#Central Chile rocked by second earthquake in 24-hours (1:25)

Two earthquakes shook Chile within a twenty-four hour period. A magnitude seven point one earthquake struck Maule (Pronounced Mah-oo-lay), Chile last Sunday. It followed an earlier quake on Saturday.

Web startup Sqoot loses sponsorship after failed advert deemed sexist by social media (1:40)

Web startup Sqoot became embroiled in a P-R crisis. In its advertisement for a Boston hackathon, Sqoot promised women as one of its perks and focused on women who would be serving the attendees beer. Thousands of tweets complaining of sexism were directed at Sqoot on Twitter. The company lost four sponsors within a twenty-four hour period, and it later apologized for what it intended as an invitation for a QUOTE good party UNQUOTE. An article in Techli said the mishap was “the worst startup P-R crisis in recent history.”

Sandra Fluke named candidate for Time’s 100 most influential people / Sandra Fluke, Chelsea Clinton, Christine Quinn on women in politics (2:26)

Sandra Fluke made Time magazine’s list of candidates for the one hundred most influential people in the world. The public can vote for candidates until April sixth. Fluke also appeared with Chelsea Clinton this week in New York at a forum about women in politics. There Clinton told the audience the United States was tied with Turkmenistan for seventy eighth place in the percentage of women participating in national politics. The panelists urged women to run for political office.

UK student jailed for ‘racist’ Twitter posts about footballer Fabrice Muamba (3:02)

U-K student Liam Stacey was sent to prison for making racist comments about Bolton footballer Fabrice Muamba on Twitter. Stacey’s tweets came after Muamba had collapsed on the pitch. The twenty-one year old first claimed his Twitter account had been hacked, then later admitted inciting racial hatred. Stacey wept as he was handcuffed and led away.

Softball Australia, federal government reaffirm support for indigenous softball / Australian field archers vie for spot at World Championships (3:30)

Australian Labor MP Andrew Leigh reaffirmed support for indigenous softball. He made the speech before two games between the Aussie Spirit and the Japanese women’s national team. Softball is the most popular sport among indigenous women and aboriginal partipication occurs at all levels of the game.

We have more on Austrialian sports at Wikinews, including more about this week’s qualifications by Australian archers for the World Archery Field Championships in August.

Wikinews Shorts: March 26, 2012#Tiger Woods secures first PGA Tour win in 30 months (4:07)

Tiger Woods won his first P-G-A Tour in thirty months. It was his seventh victory in the Arnold Palmer Invitational. Some are calling this a comeback for the pro golfer.

Former world darts champion Jocky Wilson dies at age 62 (4:20)

Former world darts champion Jocky Wilson died two days after his sixty-second birthday from a lung ailment. The Scottish darts player won his title in nineteen eighty-two and again seven years later. At the U-K Open Qualifier, around two hundred current competitors held their applause for him for a minute’s time.

US lottery jackpot tops $500 million, sets world record (4:48)

And the United States lottery Mega Millions set a world record when the jackpot surpassed a half a billion dollars after no winner was announced earlier in the week. To win, all five numbers, as well as the Mega Ball number, must match. There had been eighteen drawings without a winner since the last jackpot in January. Winners were selected Friday but none of them have been identified at this time.

Outro (5:30)

And those are the headlines for this week.


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This text comes from Wikinews. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 licence. For a complete list of contributors for this article, visit the corresponding history entry on Wikinews.

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