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July 1, 2013

Egyptian military issues ultimatum to Morsi

Egyptian military issues ultimatum to Morsi

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Monday, July 1, 2013

Today the Egyptian military issued an ultimatum to Mohammed Morsi that gives him 48 hours, until Wednesday, to meet the demands of the hundreds of thousands of people protesting his presidency, by announcing a snap election, resigning, and allowing a provisional government to take over, or they will force a political transition.

Cquote1.svg For an institution of state to come and stage a coup against the president, this will not happen. Any force that goes against the constitution is a call for sabotage and anarchy. Cquote2.svg

—Yasser Hamza, member of the Freedom and Justice Party

The military said the protests were an “unprecedented” demonstration of the people’s will.

The ultimatum was issued by an unnamed official on Egyptian state television hours after the Muslim Brotherhood‘s headquarters in Cairo was taken over. Accompanied by an image of the Egyptian Defense Minister General Abdul Fatah Khalil Al-Sisi, the ultimatum read, “If the demands of the people are not met by the expiry of this deadline, the Armed Forces will announce a road-map for the future, and procedures that the Armed Forces will oversee with the participation of all political and national streams, including the youths, who were and still are the real force that ignited their glorious revolution, and without the exclusion of any party”, after which the television channel played patriotic music.

The military also said it would “not be a party in politics or rule,” and would enforce what the people wanted.

Mohammed Morsi at a press conference in June 2012.
Image: Jonathan Rashad.

The Muslim Brotherhood has denounced the ultimatum. Yasser Hamza, a member of the Freedom and Justice Party, the political party of the Muslim Brotherhood, said, “For an institution of state to come and stage a coup against the president, this will not happen. Any force that goes against the constitution is a call for sabotage and anarchy.”

The ultimatum was due to the hundreds of thousands of people that protested in Egyptian cities including Alexandria, {Cairo, Port Said, and Suez yesterday, the first anniversary of Morsi’s inauguration, and today, demanding Morsi resign. Some estimate the turnout was tens of thousands, some hundreds of thousands, and a military source estimated the number at almost fourteen million. In Cairo, the protesters were massed at Tahrir Square and outside the presidential palace. At least sixteen people died and 780 were injured in the protests, according to Egyptian Health Ministry spokesman Yehya Moussa.

Stones and petrol bombs were thrown at the headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood, which had been fortified with sandbags. Morsi was a leading member of the Brotherhood. The protesters say the Brotherhood fired on the protesters, killing five. Today the headquarters was overrun and looted.

Late Sunday, the National Salvation Front released a statement telling protesters to “maintain their peaceful [rallies] in all the squares and streets and villages and hamlets of the country… until the last of this dictatorial regime falls” and stated that this has “confirmed the downfall of the regime of Mohamed Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood”. The National Salvation Front, a secular, liberal organization, has endorsed a petition calling for a snap election, started by the grassroots movement Rebel.

Cquote1.svg maintain their peaceful [rallies] in all the squares and streets and villages and hamlets of the country… until the last of this dictatorial regime falls Cquote2.svg

National Salvation Front in “Revolution Statement 1”

Protesters argue Morsi since taking power has failed to address political deadlock, economic crises, and personal safety problems. Many are angry at the Muslim Brotherhood, which they claim hijacked the Egyptian revolution, seizing authoritarian control and imposing Islamic law.

The BBC reported some protesters showed anti-American and anti-Israeli sentiment, noting one flag with a picture of Morsi in a Star of David.

A presidential spokesman, Ihab Fahmi, said people must “unite and listen to the sound of wisdom […] Political diversity necessitates on all parties to abide by the democratic process”. Another spokesman, Omar Amer, said “[Morsi] announced to all of Egypt’s people he made mistakes and that he is in the process of fixing these mistakes […] I want to confirm one truth, if there is a total lack of response to this initiative, no listening to it, no interest in it from any side, what do you think the presidency can do?”. Morsi has said he was validly elected, and denied instigating religious authority clauses in the new Egyptian constitution.


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December 6, 2012

Tanks, APCs deployed to presidential palace in Cairo, Egypt after deadly clashes

Tanks, APCs deployed to presidential palace in Cairo, Egypt after deadly clashes

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Thursday, December 6, 2012

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At least four tanks and several armored personnel carriers (APC) have been deployed outside the presidential palace in Cairo, Egypt following clashes between supporters and opponents of president Mohamed Morsi where as many as six people were killed. More than 700 others have been reported injured.

Opponents of Morsi began camping outside the palace on Tuesday night after hundreds of thousands protested new presidential decrees in Tahrir Square. On Wednesday, supporters of Morsi stormed the encampment and tore down tents belonging to opponents and attacked them. Some threw rocks at them while others threw molotov cocktails, forcing opponents to retreat. Clashes continued into the early morning hours before subsiding.

“I’ve seen Molotov cocktails, people armed with iron bars and rocks, some people even pulling branches off of trees in terms of trying to find some kind of weapon to fight with”, said Elizabeth Arrott, a reporter with Voice of America who was at the palace when clashes were taking place. Several journalists were also reported attacked in the clashes. People on each side have blamed the other for starting the violence.

Protests both in support of and opposing Morsi broke out around Egypt after he enacted new powers on November 22 that include making his decisions free from judicial oversight. Hisham Kandil, Egypt’s prime minister, called for calm, to “give the opportunity for the efforts being made now to begin a national dialogue”. A referendum is to be presented on December 15 outlining a new constitution for the country.



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December 5, 2012

Clashes in Egypt between supporters and opponents of president Morsi turn deadly

Clashes in Egypt between supporters and opponents of president Morsi turn deadly

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Wednesday, December 5, 2012

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At least two people in Cairo, Egypt have died after clashes at the presidential palace broke out between supporters and opponents of president Mohamed Morsi. Dozens more were injured.

On Tuesday night, opponents of Morsi set up tents and began camping outside the palace. On Wednesday, reports say supporters of Morsi stormed the encampment and tore down tents belonging to opponents and attacked them. Some threw rocks at them while others threw molotov cocktails, forcing opponents to retreat.

Protests both in support of and opposing Morsi broke out around Egypt after he enacted new powers on November 22 that include making his decisions free from judicial oversight. A referendum is to be presented on December 15 outlining a new constitution for the country.



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November 28, 2012

Thousands protest constitutional decree in Tahrir Square, Egypt

Thousands protest constitutional decree in Tahrir Square, Egypt

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Wednesday, November 28, 2012

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File image of protests in Tahrir Square in 2011.
Image: Lilian Wagdy.

An estimated over 100,000 people protested in Tahrir Square yesterday in opposition to a constitutional decree made by Egypt’s President Mohamed Morsi. Riot police dispersed the crowd with tear gas as clashes began. One fatality has been reported.

The constitutional decree made November 22 by Morsi protected the constitution drafting body of Egypt from dissolution and also protected executive decisions from being overturned. The decree has sparked protests and strikes reminiscent of protests which eventually toppled the then president Hosni Mubarak.

Earlier this year in September Egyptian courts ruled to dissolve Egypt’s parliament. Morsi opposed the ruling, threatening action, but later respected the decision.

Mohamed ElBaradei said Morsi is acting like a “new pharaoh“. In a comment to Der Spiegel, he said, “Not even the pharaohs had so much authority, to say nothing of his predecessor Hosni Mubarak. This is a catastrophe, it [is] a mockery of the revolution that brought him to power.”

ElBaradei has also said that because of the recent decree “a civil war threatens to erupt in Egypt.”

Morsi has stated the decree is temporary. He met with Egypt’s judiciary on Monday.

Counter demonstration planned by the Muslim Brotherhood and Nour Party has been cancelled to avoid possible further violence.



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June 4, 2012

Mubarak sentenced to life in prison over protester deaths

Mubarak sentenced to life in prison over protester deaths

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Monday, June 4, 2012

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Former president Hosni Mubarak was the leader of Egypt for around 30 years.
Image: onbekend.

Former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak has been sentenced to life imprisonment by a court in Egypt for his responsibility as leader in the murders of protesters during the last year’s Egyptian revolution.

Mubarak resigned from his presidential position in February 2011 as a result of the widespread protests. He has been hospitalized in Egypt’s International Medical Center since the start of his trial due to bad health; and is the first Arab world leader, since the Arab Spring began over a year ago, prosecuted while in custody.

Habib el-Adly, who was Mubarak’s interior minister, was also given life for the same type of offense. Four highly-placed government workers from the interior ministry in charge of security — including former Deputy Interior Minister Hassan Abd El Rahman — and two regional security directors were cleared of any wrongdoing. The former president’s sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak were found not guilty on corruption charges.

People in Egypt both celebrated the convictions and protested the acquittals. Protests occurred throughout the country in Cairo’s Tahrir Square, Suez, and Mansoura.

While Mubarak was transferred to the Tora prison hospital, independent lawyers said they expect an appeal, which would extend the trial. The trial has already gone on for ten months before the verdict.



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January 25, 2012

One year on: Egyptians mark anniversary of protests that toppled Mubarak

One year on: Egyptians mark anniversary of protests that toppled Mubarak

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Wednesday, January 25, 2012

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Across Egypt hundreds of thousands have taken to the streets for the day, marking exactly one year since the outbreak of protests leading to 83-year-old longstanding ruler Hosni Mubarak’s downfall. The country’s decades-long emergency rule was partially lifted this week; meanwhile, a possible economic meltdown looms and a newly-elected parliament held their first meeting on Monday.

Protestors in Tahrir Square during the revolution.
Image: Jonathan Rashad.

Protestors in Tahrir Square today.
Image: Gigi Ibrahim.

Despite the new parliament, military rule introduced following Mubarak’s fall last spring remains. Echoing the demands from a year ago, some protesters are demanding the military relinquish power; there are doubts an elected civilian leader will be permitted to replace the army.

The brief unity against Mubarak has since fragmented, with Secularists and Islamists marking the revolution’s anniversary splitting to opposing sides of Cairo’s famed Tahrir Square and chanting at each other. Initial demonstrations last year were mainly from young secularists; now, Islamic parties hold most of the new parliament’s seats — the country’s first democratic one in six decades.

Salafis hold 25% of the seats and 47% are held by the Muslim Brotherhood, which brought supporters to Cairo for the anniversary. Tahrir Square alone contained tens of thousands of people, some witnesses putting the crowd at 150,000 strong. It’s the largest number on the streets since the revolution.

Military rulers planned celebrations including pyrotechnics, commemorative coins, and air displays. The Supreme Council of Armed Forces took power after last year’s February 11 resignation of Mubarak.

Alaa al-Aswani, a pro-democracy activist writing in al-Masry al-Youm, said: “We must take to the streets on Wednesday, not to celebrate a revolution which has not achieved its goals, but to demonstrate peacefully our determination to achieve the objectives of the revolution,” — to “live in dignity, bring about justice, try the killers of the martyrs and achieve a minimum social justice”

Alexandria in the north and the eastern port city of Suez also saw large gatherings. It was bitter fighting in Suez led to the first of the revolution’s 850 casualties in ousting Mubarak. “We didn’t come out to celebrate. We came out to protest against the military council and to tell it to leave power immediately and hand over power to civilians,” said protestor Mohamed Ismail.

“Martyrs, sleep and rest. We will complete the struggle,” chanted crowds in Alexandria, a reference to the 850 ‘martyrs of the revolution’. No convictions are in yet although Mubarak is on trial. Photos of the dead were displayed in Tahrir Square. Young Tahrir chanters went with “Down with military rule” and “Revolution until victory, revolution in all of Egypt’s streets”.

If the protestors demanding the military leave power get their way, the Islamists celebrating election victory face a variety of challenges. For now, Field Marshall Mohamed Hussein Tantawi — whose career featured twenty years as defence minister under Mubarak — rules the nation and promises to cede power following presidential elections this year.

Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, pictured whilst he was still Mubarak’s defence minister, is now ruling the country.
Image: Helene C. Stikke, US DoD.

The economy is troubled and unemployment is up since Mubarak left. With tourism and foreign investment greatly lower than usual, budget and payment deficits are up — with the Central Bank eating into its reserves in a bid to keep the Egyptian pound from losing too much value.

Last week the nation sought US$3.2 billion from the International Monetary Fund. The IMF insists upon funding also being secured from other donors, and strong support from Egypt’s leaders. IMF estimates say the money could be handed over in a few months — whereas Egypt wanted it in a matter of weeks.

The country has managed to bolster trade with the United States and Jordan. Amr Abul Ata, Egyptian ambassador to the fellow Middle-East state, told The Jordan Times in an interview for the anniversary that trade between the nations increased in 2011, and he expects another increase this year. This despite insurgent attacks reducing Egyptian gas production — alongside electricity the main export to Jordan. Jordan exports foodstuffs to Egypt and has just signed a deal increasing the prices it pays for gas. 2011 trade between the countries was worth US$1 billion.

The anniversary also saw a new trade deal with the US, signed by foreign trade and industry minister Mahmoud Eisa and U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk. President Barack Obama promises work to improve U.S. investment in, and trade with, nations changing political systems after the Arab Spring. Details remain to be agreed, but various proposals include US assistance for Egyptian small and medium enterprises. Both nations intend subjecting plans to ministerial scrutiny.

The U.S. hailed “several historic milestones in its transition to democracy” within a matter of days of Egypt’s revolution. This despite U.S.-Egypt ties being close during Mubarak’s rule.

US$1 billion in grants has been received already from Qatar and Saudi Arabia but army rulers refused to take loans from Gulf nations despite offers-in-principle coming from nations including Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Foreign aid has trickled in; no money at all has been sent from G8 nations, despite the G8 Deauville Partnership earmarking US$20 billion for Arab Spring nations.

A total of US$7 billion was promised from the Gulf. The United Kingdom pledged to split £110 million between Egypt and Arab Spring initiator Tunisia. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development says G8 money should start arriving in June, when the presidential election is scheduled.

The African Development Bank approved US$1.5 billion in loans whilst Mubarak still held power but, despite discussions since last March, no further funding has been agreed. The IMF offered a cheap loan six months ago, but was turned away. Foreign investment last year fell from US$6 billion to $375 million.

Rights, justice and public order remain contentious issues. Tantawi lifted the state of emergency on Tuesday, a day before the revolution’s anniversary, but left it in place to deal with the exception of ‘thuggery’. “This is not a real cancellation of the state of emergency,” said Islamist Wasat Party MP Essam Sultan. “The proper law designates the ending of the state of emergency completely or enforcing it completely, nothing in between.”

One year after the protests that led to his loss of power, Hosni Mubarak faces death if convicted of killing those protesting against him.
Image: 2008 World Economic Forum.

The same day, Amnesty International released a report on its efforts to establish basic human rights and end the death penalty in the country. Despite sending a ten-point manifesto to all 54 political parties, only the Egyptian Social Democratic Party (of the Egyptian Bloc liberals) and the left-wing Popular Socialist Alliance Party signed up. Measures included religious freedom, help to the impoverished, and rights for women. Elections did see a handful of women win seats in the new parliament.

The largest parliamentary group is the Freedom and Justice Party of the Muslim Brotherhood, who Amnesty say did not respond. Oral assurances on all but female rights and abolition of the death penalty were given by Al-Nour, the Salafist runners-up in the elections, but no written declaration or signature.

“We challenge the new parliament to use the opportunity of drafting the new constitution to guarantee all of these rights for all people in Egypt. The cornerstone must be non-discrimination and gender equality,” said Amnesty, noting that the first seven points were less contentious amongst the twelve responding parties. There was general agreement for free speech, free assembly, fair trials, investigating Mubarak’s 30-year rule for atrocities, and lifting the state of emergency. A more mixed response was given to ensuring no discrimination against LGBT individuals, whilst two parties claimed reports of Coptic Christian persecution are exaggerated.

Mubarak himself is a prominent contender for the death penalty, currently on trial for the killings of protesters. The five-man prosecution team are also seeking death for six senior police officers and the chief of security in the same case. Corruption offences are also being tried, with Gamal Mubarak and Alaa Mubarak accused alongside their father Hosni.

The prosecution case has been hampered by changes in witness testimony and there are complaints of Interior Ministry obstruction in producing evidence. Tantawi has testified in a closed hearing that Mubarak never ordered protesters shot.

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Hisham Talaat Moustafa, an ex-MP and real estate billionaire, is another death penalty candidate. He, alongside Ahmed Sukkari, was initially sentenced to death for the murder of his ex-girlfriend, Lebanese pop star Suzanne Tamim. A new trial was granted on procedural grounds and he is now serving a fifteen-year term for paying Sukkari US$2 million to slit 30-year-old’s Tamim’s throat in Dubai. Her assassin was caught when police followed him back to his hotel and found a shirt stained with her blood; he was in custody within two hours of the murder.

The court of appeals is now set to hear another trial for both men after the convictions were once more ruled unsound.

A military crackdown took place last November, the morning after a major protest, and sparking off days of violence. Egypt was wary of a repeat this week, with police and military massed near Tahrir Square whilst volunteers manned checkpoints into the square itself.

The military has pardoned and released at least 2,000 prisoners jailed following military trials, prominently including a blogger imprisoned for defaming the army and deemed troublesome for supporting Israel. 26-year-old Maikel Nabil was given a three year sentence in April. He has been on hunger strike alleging abuse at the hands of his captors. He wants normalised relations with Israel. Thousands have now left Tora prison in Cairo.

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April 13, 2011

Mubarak arrested in Egypt ahead of corruption probe

Mubarak arrested in Egypt ahead of corruption probe

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Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Cquote1.svg The prosecutor general orders the detention of former president Hosni Mubarak and his sons Gamal and Alaa. Cquote2.svg

—Egyptian prosecutor general

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File photograph of Hosni Mubarak.
Image: World Economic Forum.

Hosni Mubarak, the ousted president of Egypt, who was last night taken to hospital after a heart attack, has been detained by prosecutors in the country ahead of a corruption probe. Egyptian officials allege Mubarak was involved in corruption and killings while he was in office.

The prosecutor general confirmed Mubarak and his two sons, Gamal and Alaa, had been detained for 15 days in the early hours of this morning. The former president, ousted from power in February following widespread protests across the country, remains in hospital after suffering a heart attack while being questioned by Egyptian officials yesterday.

Mubarak was summoned to face questions before Egyptian officials on Sunday over allegations of money laundering while he was in power and claims he ordered security forces to fire on anyone protesting against him. Sources say he suffered a heart attack while being interrogated by Egyptian prosecutors, and was taken to hospital in the coastal city of Sharm el-Sheikh, where he has been living since resigning. He arrived at the hospital in an armored car and flanked by heavy protection, according to two sources in the city, which lies on the coast of the Red Sea.

Outside the hospital, thousands of people gathered to demand Mubarak stand trial for ordering security forces to fire on protesters during the popular uprising earlier this year, when 800 people were killed. As Gamal and Alaa were driven away in a police van the crowd pelted the vehicle with stones, water bottles and shoes. Thousands more have gathered in Tahrir Square in the capital, Cairo, in the past few days demanding Mubarak be tried for his alleged crimes.

Mubarak has robustly denied the allegations of corruption and killings during his administration. Shortly before he was ordered for questioning on Sunday, the television station Al-Arabiya broadcast an audio message from the former leader, in which he said he would defend himself against what he termed an “unjust” campaign of “distortions, lies and incitement” against him. He claimed his enemies were systematically aiming to “tarnish my reputation and discredit my integrity,” and said he would legally fight those who “engaged in lies and distortions against me.”



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  • “Mubarak refused permission to leave Egypt for treatment after heart attack” — Wikinews, April 12, 2011
  • “Mubarak summoned by Egyptian prosecutors to face allegations of killings and corruption” — Wikinews, April 10, 2011

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April 10, 2011

Mubarak summoned by Egyptian prosecutors to face allegations of killings and corruption

Mubarak summoned by Egyptian prosecutors to face allegations of killings and corruption

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Sunday, April 10, 2011

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Hosni Mubarak was ousted as president of Egypt in February.
Image: Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian president ousted in February after massive demonstrations, has been summoned by officials in the country to face questions about corruption within his administration and allegations he ordered his forces to kill activists protesting against him.

The news came hours after Mubarak announced he would cooperate with the investigation into corruption within his regime, and said he would robustly defend himself against what he termed an “unjust” campaign of “distortions, lies and incitement” against him. He made the comments in his first appearance since he was ousted from office.

His two sons have also been summoned by Egyptian prosecutors to answer to allegations of embezzlement of public funds during Mubarak’s rule. This afternoon, the former prime minister of Egypt, Ahmed Nazif, was taken into custody for 15 days as part of the corruption investigation, the Egyptian public prosecutor said in a statement.

Mubarak said he would not be returning to politics and he had left office in “the interest of the country”. He said he would write to Egyptian officials to say he would cooperate with their investigation, and added the inquest would find his assets were “far from any allegations of corruption,” following which he would “legally pursue those who engaged in lies and distortions against me.”

Cquote1.svg I have been in great pain because of the unjust campaigns and untrue allegations targeting myself and my family. Cquote2.svg

—Hosni Mubarak

In an audio message which aired today on Al-Arabiya, Mubarak said he would not “stay silent regarding the incitement campaign against me.” He said: “I have been in great pain because of the unjust campaigns and untrue allegations targeting myself and my family. They aim to tarnish my reputation and discredit my integrity, my stance, my political and military history during which I worked hard for Egypt and its people in peace and war.”

On Friday, dozens were injured and at least one person killed as the Egyptian army moved into Tahrir Square in Cairo to clear protesters calling for Mubarak to stand trial for corruption. The army has denied using live ammunition, but several people suffered gunshot wounds.

Three people within Mubarak’s administration have been charged with corruption by Egyptian authorities in the wake of Mubarak stepping down from his position as president two months ago after widespread protests in Egypt. Officials have denied reports he is unwell, and he is thought to be residing at his home in Sharm el-Sheikh, on the coast of the Red Sea. He has been barred from leaving the country.



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February 1, 2011

Egypt protests: Army say they will not use force on demonstrators as Mubarak announces cabinet

Egypt protests: Army say they will not use force on demonstrators as Mubarak announces cabinet

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Tuesday, February 1, 2011

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Egyptian army soldiers monitor protests over the weekend.
Image: Ramy Raoof.

The president of Egypt has suffered a “devastating blow” after the country’s army announced they would not use force against their own people, who continue to protest against the government tonight. The news came hours after six journalists who reported on the protests were released from custody.

Hosni Mubarak yesterday announced a new cabinet, which does not include several figures who protesters largely do not approve of. Analysts have, however, suggested little had changed within the government; many positions, they say, are filled with military figures.

Army will ‘not use force’

Cquote1.svg To the great people of Egypt, your armed forces, acknowledging the legitimate rights of the people … have not and will not use force against the Egyptian people. Cquote2.svg

Egyptian army statement

In a statement broadcast on state media in Egypt, the army said: “To the great people of Egypt, your armed forces, acknowledging the legitimate rights of the people … have not and will not use force against the Egyptian people.” A BBC correspondent in Cairo said the announcement meant it “now seems increasingly likely that the 30-year rule of Mr Mubarak is drawing to a close.”

“The presence of the army in the streets is for your sake and to ensure your safety and wellbeing. The armed forces will not resort to use of force against our great people,” the statement added. “Your armed forces, who are aware of the legitimacy of your demands and are keen to assume their responsibility in protecting the nation and the citizens, affirms that freedom of expression through peaceful means is guaranteed to everybody.”

Journalists released

Earlier today, six journalists from the independent news network Al-Jazeera were released from custody after being detained by police. The U.S. State Department criticized the arrests; equipment was reportedly confiscated from the journalists.

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Egyptian officials yesterday ordered the satellite channel to stop broadcasting in the country. Al-Jazeera said they were “appalled” by the government’s decision to close its Egyptian offices, which they described as the “latest attack by the Egyptian regime to strike at its freedom to report independently on the unprecedented events in Egypt.”

In a statement, the news agency added: “Al-Jazeera sees this as an act designed to stifle and repress the freedom of reporting by the network and its journalists. In this time of deep turmoil and unrest in Egyptian society it is imperative that voices from all sides be heard; the closing of our bureau by the Egyptian government is aimed at censoring and silencing the voices of the Egyptian people.”

On Friday, Wikinews reported the government had shut off practically all Internet traffic both out of and into the nation, as well as disrupting cellphone usage. A spokesperson for the social networking website Facebook said “limiting Internet access for millions of people is a matter of concern for the global community.”

Protests continue

Protesters in Tahrir Square on Sunday.
Image: Mona.

A reported 50,000 campaigners, who are demanding the long-time leader step down and complaining of poverty, corruption, and oppression, filled Tahrir Square in Cairo today, chanting “We will stay until the coward leaves.” It is thought 100 people have so far died in the demonstrations. Today there have been protests in Suez, Mansoura, Damanhour, and Alexandria.

Speaking to news media in the area, many protesters said the new cabinet did little to quell their anger. “We want a complete change of government, with a civilian authority,” one said. Another added: “This is not a new government. This is the same regime—this is the same bluff. [Mubarak] has been bluffing us for 30 years.”

In Tahrir Square today, protesters played music as strings of barbed wire and army tanks stood nearby. Demonstrators scaled light poles, hanging Egyptian flags and calling for an end to Mubarak’s rule. “One poster featured Mubarak’s face plastered with a Hitler mustache, a sign of the deep resentment toward the 82-year-old leader they blame for widespread poverty, inflation and official indifference and brutality during his 30 years in power,” one journalist in the square reported this evening.



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2011 Egyptian protests

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