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April 17, 2016

North Korean ballistic missile fails at launch

North Korean ballistic missile fails at launch

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Sunday, April 17, 2016

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In the early morning on Friday, North Korea tried unsuccessfully to launch a ballistic missile Musudan, BM-25, according to reports. An anonymous defense official placed the attempt at 5:03 local time (2033 on Thursday UTC).

According to South Korean news agency Yonhap, the missile’s range is 3,000 to 4,000 kilometers (about 1850 to 2500 miles), enough to reach the US base on the island of Guam.

A statement from the South Korean Joint Chiefs of Staff said “North Korea appears to have tried to shoot, this morning, a missile from the area of the East Sea, but it is presumed that the launch failed.” According to Yonhap, North Korea did not notify the International Maritime Organization of the launch.

Friday was the 104th birthday of the founder of North Korea and grandfather of present leader Kim Jong-un, Kim Il-sung, which is celebrated with military parades and events.



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April 15, 2016

Falla missile launch in North Korea

Falla missile launch in North Korea – Wikinews, the free news source

Falla missile launch in North Korea

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Friday, April 15, 2016

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In the early morning on Friday, North Korea failed to try to launch a ballistic missile Musudan or BM-25, according to reports. An anonymous defense official placed the attempt at 5:03 local time (2033 on Thursday UTC).

According to South Korean news agency Yonhap, the missile’s range is 3,000 to 4,000 kilometers (about 1850 to 2500 miles), enough to reach the US base on the island of Guam.

A statement from the South Korean Joint Chiefs of Staff said “North Korea appears to have tried to shoot, this morning, a missile from the area of the East Sea, but it is presumed that the launch failed.” According to Yonhap, North Korea did not notify the International Maritime Organization of the launch.

Friday was the 104th birthday of the founder of North Korea and grandfather of present leader Kim Jong-un, Kim Il-sung, which is celebrated with military parades and events.



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February 8, 2016

North Korea launches long-range missile

North Korea launches long-range missile – Wikinews, the free news source

North Korea launches long-range missile

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Monday, February 8, 2016

The South Korean defense ministry said North Korea launched a long-range missile yesterday.

North Korea had announced a plan to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for a terrestrial observation satellite launch between February 8 and 25. North Korean state media reported the satellite launch was successful and was ordered by North Korean leader Kim Jong-un with more plans to launch satellites.

The launch occurred at 09:31am local time (0031 UTC) and was detected by a South Korean warship, according to ministry spokesman Moon Sang Gyun. Nations including Japan and South Korea considered the launch a disguised ballistic missile test. Japan, South Korea, and the United States condemned the launch and called for an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council to be held in New York yesterday at 11:00am local time (1600 UTC).

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe called the launch “unacceptable” and said, “We will take action to totally protect the safety and well-being of our people”. South Korean President Park Geun-hye also called the launch “unacceptable” and a “challenge to world peace”. Japanese public broadcaster NHK said the rocket passed in Japanese airspace over Okinawa without provoking use of anti-ballistic missiles.

North Korea claimed in January to have successfully tested a hydrogen bomb.



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August 21, 2015

North Korea puts military in \’quasi-state of war\’

North Korea puts military in ‘quasi-state of war’

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Friday, August 21, 2015

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According to Yonhap news agency, quoting North Korea‘s main news agency Korean Central News Agency (KCNA), the country’s military has been placed on high alert and has been told to prepare a “quasi-state of war”. The report comes after North and South Korea exchanged artillery fire yesterday.

“War maniacs of the South Korean puppet military made another grave provocation to the DPRK in the central western sector of the front on Thursday afternoon. They perpetrated such reckless action as firing 36 shells at KPA civil police posts under the absurd pretext that the KPA fired one shell at the south side. Six shells of them hit the area near KPA civil police posts 542 and 543 and other 15 shells fell near KPA civil police posts 250 and 251,” said KCNA. “Foolhardy provocation deserves harsh punishment,” it added; and, later, “Kim Jong-un issued an order of the supreme commander of the Korean People’s Army [KPA] that the front-line large combined units of the KPA should enter a wartime state to be fully battle ready to launch surprise operations.”

Yesterday, North Korea fired artillery rounds aimed at a loudspeaker in South Korea that broadcasts anti-Pyongyang propaganda into the North. “Commanders of the Korean People’s Army were hastily dispatched to the front-line troops to command military operations to destroy psychological warfare tools if the enemy does not stop the propaganda broadcast within 48 hours and prepare against the enemy’s possible counteractions,” added KCNA.

No injuries or deaths were reported in the attacks from either side, but South Korea evacuated about 80 people in the town of Yeoncheon after at least one shell landed near the area. The South retaliated by firing dozens of rounds of artillery into the north.

South Korea had recently started to broadcast propaganda from loudspeakers after an 11-year lull. The broadcasts began on August 10 and South Korea says the broadcasts will continue. After the exchange of fire, North Korea stated it would attack any loudspeakers broadcasting propaganda and would respond, militarily, within 48 hours if the broadcasts do not stop.

Both countries have put their militaries on high levels of alert.



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October 6, 2013

Wikinews interviews specialists on South Korea military parade

Wikinews interviews specialists on South Korea military parade

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Sunday, October 6, 2013

File photo of South Korean military troops.
Image: US Military.

On Tuesday, South Korea staged a huge military parade to mark its armed forces’ 65th anniversary in a display of long-range missiles considered a direct threat to North Korea. 11,000 troops and 190 different weapons systems were on display in the parade. Wikinews interviewed several specialists about the parade’s possible significance.

Interviewees

Wikinews interviewed:

  • Robert Kelly, Associate Professor of International Relations Pusan National University (PNU) in South Korea
  • Margaret Kosal, Assistant Professor at the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia
  • Gari Ledyard, Professor Emeritus of Korean Studies at Columbia University, New York
  • Sue Mi Terry, Senior Research Scholar at the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University in New York
  • Young-hae Chi, Instructor in Korean at the University of Oxford, England
  • Seungkwon You, Associate Teaching Professor of Korean Studies at the University of Missouri

Wikinews Q&A

File:Robert Kelly File Photo.JPG

File photo of interviewee Robert Kelly.
Image: Robert Kelly.
(Image missing from commons: image; log)

Wikinews waves Left.pngWikinewsWikinews waves Right.png What is your job role?

Kelly: I am a Professor of International Relations at PNU.
Kosal: I am an Assistant Professor in the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology, more commonly known as “Georgia Tech.” I also direct the Emerging Technology and Security Program and the Biological and Chemical Nonproliferation and Counterterrorism Program.
Ledyard: I retired from my professorship at Columbia thirteen years ago; since then I’ve had no role. When I was active there since 1964, I taught Korean history and culture, emphasizing the traditional periods of Korea’s earlier history. In those years I wrote a few articles on contemporary political issues but my research has been almost all in Korea’s past.
Terry: I am a Senior Research Scholar at Columbia University’s Weatherhead East Asian Institute.
Chi: I have been teaching Korean studies at Oxford University. I am specialized in international relations of the Far East and particularly North Korean human rights and refugee issues. I worked as an analyst of security issues at the Korea Institute for Defence Analyses in Seoul between 1983 and 1988 authoring a number of policy papers for the South Korean Government.
You: Associate Teaching Professor of Korean Studies teaching Korean Unification, Korean film, Korean society [at the University of Missouri].

Wikinews waves Left.pngWNWikinews waves Right.png Is the display of cruise missiles and other weapons in a military parade by South Korea in direct response to repeated similar North Korean parades?

Kelly: Yes. I don’t actually think these sorts of demonstrations are proper in a democracy. Liberal states should not really be flashing their hardware in a strutting, provocative way like this. This is the sort of thing Putin would do. But SK’s [South Korea’s] case is rather exceptional. NK [North Korea] tries pretty regularly to bully SK, and as its nuclear and missile programs advance, SK deterrence become ever more important. So parades like this are a way of SK saying ‘don’t mess with us even though you have nukes.’

South Korean President Park Geun-Hye with United States President Barack Obama.
Image: White House.

Kosal: The “display” was multi-functional. It shows the modern, indigenous conventional military capabilities of the South Korean forces. It was also to credibly communicate — literally show to the North — possession of an adequate deterrent force, a force that is both capable and credible. The underlying capacity supports the newly announced bilateral tailored deterrence strategy between South Korea and the United States. The military parade served to transparently show, in a largely passive/non-offensive/non-reactionary way, the capacity to follow through on that strategy that is directed at North Korea’s offensive nuclear weapons, offensive chemical weapons, and offensive biological weapons programs rather than a more general deterrence strategy. There is much more to a tailored deterrence strategy, but that is one part of it. The specific declaratory policy highlights South Korea’s responsibility to “continue to build reliable inter-operable response capabilities and to develop the Korean Air and Missile Defense system.” These are largely passive defense measures to minimize the effects of a North Korean offensive attack and to reduce vulnerability of South Korean forces and civilians. It’s part of the overall strategic defense posture.
While not commonly observed in the US, parades like this are not atypical for East Asia, particularly in conjunction with significant anniversaries. In this case, the parade also marked the 65th anniversary of the Republic of Korea [South Korea] Armed Forces. In addition to the international visibility, it also serves South Korean domestic politics and advances South Korean President Park Geun-hye‘s own strong national security policies.
Ledyard: It could very well be, but I have no knowledge regarding it. It has long been routine for both Koreas to compete in the headlines.
Terry: President Park is trying to make it clear to the North that this time, under her watch, Seoul is now serious about responding to future provocations by the North. South Korea’s display of its missiles is meant to deter the North, to show the North that any provocation in the future would be met with strong retaliation.
Chi: The institution of the military parade has been a regular feature of the Armed Forces’ Day celebration in South Korea. Yet the display of the cruise missiles in the recent parade is designed to achieve specific purposes. One is obviously targeting at the North Korean regime as a warning for possible pre-emptive strikes on their conventional and nuclear missile sites. The other target is South Korean citizens who have been increasingly agitated about the possession of WMDs by its Northern counterpart and want to see some guarantee from their own government. Hence the parade is not only for displaying its military capabilities to its enemies but it is also playing a psychological game with its own people. Yet, Hyunmoo-3c, one of the cruise missiles displayed in the event, signals that the South Korean government’s perspective is no longer limited to the Korean peninsula. Hyunmoo-3c’s range of 1,500 km indicates that the Korean military oversees the entire Northeast Asian region as its strategic theatre. Such a wide strategic thinking is also behind the planned construction of the naval base in Jeju Island.
You: Not direct response. However, this parade has not been done for many years and resumed this year indicating [the] Park government would not tolerate any hostile action by North Korea.

File photo of interviewee Young-hae Chi.
Image: Young-hae Chi.

Wikinews waves Left.pngWNWikinews waves Right.png South Korea’s President, Park Geun-hye, has warned of a “very grave” threat posed by North Korea. Would a military parade like this be more likely to encourage hostile behaviour?

Kelly: Not really, because NK already engages in so much hostile behavior it is hard to know how much more restraint SK show. My own sense is that SK demonstrates remarkable forbearance in the face of NK threats. If one thinks of how, e.g., the US or Israel would respond to such threats, SK looks downright gentle. So SK needs to signal both that it does not seek escalation, but also that it cannot be bullied. It’s a tough balancing act, and this parade is to send that second message.
Kosal: Not necessarily. North Korean behavior is difficult to predict with any fidelity. The military parade, while it shows potential capacity, is a fundamentally passive (rather than active or reactive) form of behavior. Reinforces a consistent posture by the South Koreans and the US.
Ledyard: There is a sixty-year history of such back-and-forth with an impressive absence of active military conflict. It’s tit for tat, and both sides either maintain the balance or one or the other loses face. It would take much more than a parade for actual conflict to erupt.
Terry: No, not in the long run although this kind of a military parade might provoke temporary, short-term hostile behavior by the North. The North has never been ideological or suicidal. Its chief goal always has been regime survival. It knows if a war were to break out, it will definitively lose to South Korea.
Chi: The South Korean government has been implementing military parades since 1956, and as such it is unlikely to encourage or discourage hostile behaviour.
You: Could be. North Korea already criticized [the] Park government about the recent parade and very bold move by the Park Government in negotiating family reunion and resuming of Diamond Mountains. However, I do not believe that North Korea will take any hostile action since the US Secretary of State, Kerry, is proposing North Korea a peaceful dialogue.

File photo of interviewee Margaret Kosal.
Image: Margaret Kosal.

Wikinews waves Left.pngWNWikinews waves Right.png Does the presence of US Defence Secretary Chuck Hagel to this military parade show a further strengthening in the US–South Korea alliance?

Kelly: It does, but the Secretary’s presence is more for the optics than substance. The US–Korean alliance was substantially strengthened about 4 years ago by the previous SK president. This is just a refresher that looks good on TV.
Kosal: Secretary of Defense Hagel’s presence, along with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Martin Dempsey, shows the commitment of the United States to support its ally. The United States remains committed to the transfer of operational control (OPCON) to the South Koreans for general defense of South Korea. The US is also strongly committed to limiting proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Their presence reinforces that to the North Koreans as well as to the international community.
Ledyard: It is simple routine in the USA–ROK alliance. South Koreans depend on it and the US takes care to show support.
Terry: Yes, it further showcases the depth of Washington‘s support for South Korea against any provocation from Pyongyang.
Chi: Certainly he is there to add symbolic strength to the alliance which tended to be weakened until recently. Behind his presence is the recent agreement to reconsider the planed transfer of the war-time operation control from the UN/US to the Korean army.
You: US–South Korea alliance is strong but it is a bit more complicated since [the] US is supporting Japan in arming in naval forces to check China, which is a great concern for South Korea and [the] South Korean people. This might cause some issues in US–South Korea alliance.

File photo of interviewee Gari Ledyard.
Image: Gari Ledyard.

Wikinews waves Left.pngWNWikinews waves Right.png North Korea’s rhetoric vows the repeated bolstering of its nuclear arsenal to what it calls US military threats. Do you think a military parade of this type backed by the US is likely to influence further hostility?

Kelly: No, because NK must be permanently hostile toward the US and SK anyway. NK has no reason to exist as a separate, poorer Korean state, just as the GDR [East Germany] had no post-cold war reason to exist, unless SK and the US can be regularly described as the enemy. So NK doesn’t want a war, but they certainly don’t want a warm peace, as then NK then loses its raison d’etre.
Kosal: No, North Korea and its leadership are responsible for its choices, which are the primary source of instability on the Korean peninsula with potential regional effects.
Ledyard: The “military threats” are more a reflection of North Korea’s fears than any concrete threats. They are more for internal DPRK [North Korea] efforts to keep its own population in tune with government policies.
Terry: No. I think it’s important to remember Pyongyang’s periodic provocations and its pursuit of nuclear arsenal are not reactions or self-defense measures against a threatening Seoul or Washington. Incapable of competing with economically flourishing South Korea, the North relies on bolstering its nuclear arsenal and on military and political brinkmanship to make up ground.
Chi: The two Koreas do the military parade almost routinely. South Korea will have a similar parade again when there is a new government in five years. It is unlikely the kind of parade to influence further hostility.
You: No, this is just symbolic. As a matter of fact, North Korea is very anxious to escape from the current gridlock and [the] US and South Korea do not give them plenty of reasons to go to the negotiating table.

File photo of interviewee Sue Mi Terry.
Image: Sue Mi Terry.

Wikinews waves Left.pngWNWikinews waves Right.png Do you think it is likely that North and South Korea may at some point in the near future be engaged in direct military action with each other?

Kelly: Minor skirmishes are possible, indeed likely, given the border confusion in the Yellow Sea. But a major conflict is highly unlikely, no matter what bluster comes from NK. The NKs would lose such a war, decisively in fact, and the NK elite would face the hangman in the South afterward. NK is much too far behind to win. So full-scale conflict is very unlikely.
Kosal: I hope not.
Ledyard: No. A year or two ago there was a naval incident that occurred in the West Sea, but both sides separated quickly, although the North shelled an island claimed by both the DPRK and the ROK. Neither side has anything to gain from any such incident.
Terry: The North’s latest tactic — to return to diplomacy after provoking Seoul and Washington earlier this year — does not mean that the North has abandoned its timeworn brinkmanship strategy nor that it has shifted its nuclear policy. The North is likely to pursue more aggressive action down the road, attempting to ratchet up another sense of crisis, if it determines that its current peace ploy is not getting the concessions it seeks from Seoul. But while the North may provoke Seoul again with border skirmishes, or another missile or nuclear test, I think it will avoid direct military action with Seoul that will escalate to an all-out conflict. Again, Pyongyang will not risk outright hostilities that will lead to an all-out war.
Chi: You can never exclude possible exchanges of military actions within a limited range. At the time of North Korean attack on Yeonpyeong Island in November 2011, the South Korean Government made an official pledge to retaliate against any future military actions by North Korea. The government will face grave political consequences if it fails to live up to its own words. There is always a possibility of direct military actions but they will be more or less contained to a local level.
You: No, I would not think so. North Korea is more desperate to engage in a dialogue with South Korea and [the] US but they look for justification to go to the table. However, [the] Park government and US would not be simply welcoming them to the negotiating table. When they negotiate, they would be not generous or lenient to take all the North Korean offers.

A KPAF Ilyushin Il-76MD strategic airlifter in the mid-2000s, in Air Koryo markings.
Image: Regis Sibille.

Wikinews waves Left.pngWNWikinews waves Right.png This parade has been described as an Anti-North deterrence, do you think this will act as such?

Kelly: Yes. NK is moving more rapidly toward nuclearization and missilization than many had expected. NK pretty clearly has no intention of de-nuclearizing. That is simply not going to happen no matter how many SK and US political figures demand it. So now, SK must show that it can keep up and match, if not outrace, the NKs. This is why there is so much focus now on SK missile and BMD capabilities.
Kosal: Yes.
Ledyard: Again, nearly sixty years of history supports the view that neither side has any interest in actual military conflict.
Terry: To some degree, yes. It’s good to remind the North of Seoul’s capabilities, although as I said before, Kim Jong-un, like his father and grandfather before him, already knows any all-out conflict would result in the destruction of his regime.
Chi: South Korea’s possession of cruise missiles and other advanced technology such as drones had been an open secret. There is nothing new about this parade, hence little deterrence effect added to the existing military posture.
You: No, it would not act as such. Rather, it has domestic purpose to draw [the] South Korean public to concern more about South Korean military and national security in general. For the past decade, [the] South Korean public have been very critical of the role of military in society. Certainly, the Park government wants to rectify it.



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January 27, 2013

North Korea sends out warning following planned nuclear test

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Sunday, January 27, 2013

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The North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has vowed “high profile important state measures” in a statement on Sunday following a tightening of sanctions by the United Nations. The statement Sunday said Kim spoke at a top-level security meeting, however the official Korean Central News Agency did not say when the meeting had taken place.

The warning from Pyongyang comes after the United Nations Security Council on Tuesday condemned December’s North Korean long-range rocket tests. The security council imposed sanctions on the regime and stated North Korean must forgo further nuclear testing or the UN would take “significant action”.

North Korea sent a satellite into space on December 12 aboard a long-range rocket, a launch the United States and allies allege tested banned technology for long-range missiles.



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December 19, 2011

North Korean leader Kim Jong-il dead

North Korean leader Kim Jong-il dead – Wikinews, the free news source

North Korean leader Kim Jong-il dead

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Monday, December 19, 2011

Kim Jong-il on August 24, 2011 Image: Kremlin.ru.

The Supreme Leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-il, has died according to the Korean Central News Agency (KCNA). The cause of death was “advanced acute myocardial infarction, complicated by serious heart shock,” commonly known as a heart attack. Kim apparently died two days earlier on December 17 aboard a train. According to North Korean media, Kim was 69. However, other records from the former Soviet Union place his age at 70.

At the same time, Kim’s son, Kim Jong-un has been named as the “Great Successor” by North Korean state media. Citizens are being told they “must faithfully revere respectable comrade Kim Jong-un. At the leadership of comrade Kim Jong-un, we have to change sadness to strength and courage and overcome today’s difficulties,” according to KCNA.

According to Yonhap News Agency, South Korea’s military is on “emergency alert” following a meeting by South Korean Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). According to a JCS official, “We’re keeping close tabs on the demilitarized zone (DMZ), Joint Security Area (JSA) and Northern Limit Line (NLL) for possibilities of North Korean provocations.”

South Korean President Lee Myung-bak also presided over a meeting. A statement from Lee’s office said, “The government will remain thoroughly prepared while keeping a close watch over the situation in North Korea. The government will also cooperate closely with the international community to maintain peace and safety on the Korean Peninsula.”



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August 6, 2010

Football: Coach of North Korea condemned to hard labor

Football: Coach of North Korea condemned to hard labor

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Friday, August 6, 2010

According to Radio Free Asia, North Korean authorities are retaliating against players in the national football team who played in the 2010 World Cup. The team lost all three matches. It was only the second time that the North Koreans had qualified for the World Cup finals.

Members of the squad, excepting Japanese nationals Jong Tae-se and An Yong-Hak who were in their homeland, were publicly shamed in a Stalinist-style event where more than 400 people, including journalists and political leaders, insulted and humiliated the team.

DPR Korea Football Association logo. Credit: Asian Football Confederation

Following the event, the team’s coach Kim Jung Hun has been sentenced to hard labor following a speedy trial. “He will carry loads on a building site for fourteen hours a day,” reports Le Figaro. He was found guilty of “betrayal of trust of Kim Jong-un”, the son and heir of country leader Kim Jong-Il who determined the final team roster, and allegedly expelled from the Worker’s Party.

In the past, national coaches have not returned to their countries following losses in the finals in the World Cup. In 1978, Mexican coach, Jose Antonio Roca would not return to his country following the elimination of the team in the first group stage. Like their North Korean counterparts who lost 7–0 against Portugal, the Mexicans had suffered a heavy defeat against Germany, losing 6–0.



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July 13, 2009

North Korean leader Kim Jong-il \’has cancer\’

North Korean leader Kim Jong-il ‘has cancer’

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Monday, July 13, 2009

Kim Jong-il

The leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-il, is reported to have pancreatic cancer according to YTN, a South Korean news channel. The unconfirmed reports state that Kim was diagnosed last year, at about the same time of a reported stroke.

YTN broke the news using unidentified sources within South Korea and China. However, the National Intelligence Service of South Korea could not confirm the illness, while a South Korean Ministry of Unification spokesperson also indicated he had no knowledge of the reported illness.

Kim made a rare public appearance on July 8 of this year to mark the 15th anniversary of his father’s death. According to reports, Kim was looking “gaunt” and walking with a limp. 67-year-old Kim has suffered from several severe health problems in the past few years and speculation about his health has come under doubt several times.

It is reported that Kim Jong-un, Kim Jong-il’s youngest son, is the chosen heir to North Korean leadership, but North Korea has yet to confirm this.

Kim Jong-il took over power in 1994 after his father’s death. He took over the National Defence Commission of North Korea and as leader of the Workers’ Party of Korea but not the presidency. Kim’s father, Kim Il-sung, was subsequently named Eternal President of the Republic.

Daniel Pinkston, a senior analyst at the International Crisis Group said that the illness would explain the “rapidness of some of [North Korea’s] actions over the past eight months or so, with the attempted satellite launch, nuclear test and missile tests.” Pinkston feels the recent actions are for appearances of normalcy and to shore up internal support for a transition of power to Kim Jong-un. “Now they are going through things as if they have a plan or schedule,” added Pinkston.

Pancreatic cancer is often a life-threatening disease, with the National Cancer Institute estimating a five-year survival rate of 5.5%.



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June 3, 2009

North Korea reportedly names successor to leader Kim Jong-il

North Korea reportedly names successor to leader Kim Jong-il

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Wednesday, June 3, 2009

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South Korean media is reporting that North Korea’s leader, Kim Jong-il has named his successor, after ordering his people to pledge their alliance to his youngest son, Kim Jong-un, age 25.

Yonhap News Agency reports that the decision was made after North Korea’s recent test of a nuclear bomb on May 25. The New York Times reports that select unnamed embassies overseas received the news to pledge their support for their decision, but that there has been no official confirmation of the decision.

The South Korean presidential office refused to confirm, or deny that any change to North Korean leadership was imminent saying, “nothing has been confirmed.” If true, the news also comes just nine months after media reported that Jong-il had a “serious stroke.”

Little is known about Kim Jong-un. His name had only surfaced in 2003 when mentioned in memoirs written by a former chief of the Japanese military. Prior to that time, reports said that Jong-il had only two sons, Kim Jong-chul and Kim Jong-nam.



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