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June 22, 2011

Brazil spots unknown tribe of indigenous people in Amazon jungle

Brazil spots unknown tribe of indigenous people in Amazon jungle

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Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Map of Brazil. Javari river valley reservation is near the border of Peru.
Image: Felipe Menegaz.

Brazil has located an isolated group of indigenous, uncontacted people in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, the Brazilian National Foundation of Indians (FUNAI) announced today.

FUNAI, a state agency, uses aerial expeditions to avoid impacting uncontacted people and invading their land. The agency’s policy is to avoid maintaining any human contact with untouched tribes.

Clearings in the Javari river valley reservation were first identified by satellite; the group’s existence was only verified later by air flights over the area. The flights established the existence of three clearings with four straw-roofed buildings, known as malocas, which may shelter over 200 Indians. Also visible were areas where crops such as bananas, maize and perhaps peanuts were apparently being grown.

FUNAI’s Javari valley coodinator told the Brazilian news agency Estado that both the croplands and the malocas “are new” and are estimated to have been used “for at most one year”.

Cquote1.svg [T]he Amazon region contains the majority of untouched tribes without any contact with the exterior in the World. Cquote2.svg

—Fabricio Amorim, FUNAI coordinator

Amorim said, “[T]he Amazon region contains the majority of untouched tribes without any contact with the exterior in the World.” And he said the recent findings highlight that the Javari valley holds, “the greatest concentration of isolated groups in Amazonia“.

The newly identified group is located close to Brazil’s border with Peru in the huge Vale do Javari reservation. Fourteen known uncontacted tribes have been spotted there and up to eight more are suggested by aerial evidence. Altogether, there are about 2,000 individuals in the reservation, according to Amorim.

He said that their culture and their very survival is threatened by illegal removal of the area’s natural resources, as well as many other intrusions of civilization, but most of Brazil’s indigenous groups have not changed their languages or traditions. FUNAI estimates that the recently discovered tribe likely belongs to the pano language group.

Brazil’s indigenous peoples have tenaciously fought for their legal right to reclaim their traditional lands which were allotted to them in Brazil’s 1988 constitution stating that all indigenous ancestral lands were to have their boundaries clearly marked and returned to tribes within five years.



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September 8, 2010

Researchers find moonlight influences owl monkeys\’ nocturnal activity

Researchers find moonlight influences owl monkeys’ nocturnal activity

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Wednesday, September 8, 2010

The Argentinian monkeys studied are in the same nocturnal genus, Aotus, as the Panamanian owl monkey pictured
Image: dsasso.

Researchers led by a University of Pennsylvania scientist have discovered that moonlight increases the nocturnal activity of owl monkeys in South America. The researchers say this is the first long-term study showing that heat and light can affect the nocturnality of primates in the wild.

Azara’s owl monkeys were known to have regular activity patterns that included both nocturnal and diurnal (daytime) activity. These patterns changed more frequently than a few times per year along with seasonal phenomena. The study showed the monkeys’ nocturnal activity increased in warmer months and peaked on full moon nights — but decreased during full lunar eclipses on full moon nights, which occurred three times during the study.

Lead investigator and assistant professor in U.Penn.’s Department of Anthropology Eduardo Fernández-Duque explained that many animals change their activity levels with changes in environmental conditions. These changes are called “masking” in chronobiology. But the species of owl monkeys is distinguishable by its increased activity during nights with better moon light.

As Fernández-Duque explained, “The behavioral outcome for these owl monkeys is nocturnal activity maximized during relatively warm, moonlit nights. While laboratory studies have pointed to the importance of masking in determining the environmental factors that cause animals to switch from nocturnal activity patterns to diurnal ones or vice versa, our study underscores the importance of masking in determining the daily activity patterns of animals living in the wild. It also suggests that moonlight is a key adaptation for the exploitation of the nocturnal niche by primates.”

“Harsher climate, food availability and the lack of predators or daytime competition have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns,” said Fernández-Duque.

Team member Horacio de la Iglesia, of the Department of Biology at the University of Washington, pointed out that the changes of activity, though seasonal, aren’t a built-in biological clock. He was sure that they wouldn’t happen in absence of the Moon. He stated, “If there was a biological clock that they were depending on to regulate this activity, you could expect the activity to continue even in the absence of lunar light. The lunar day has not been a stable force as much as the solar day to evolutionarily select for a clock. We still have to prove it in the lab, but the evidence in this paper points to a lack of a lunar biological clock.”



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November 4, 2009

French structuralist Claude Lévi-Strauss dies at age 100

French structuralist Claude Lévi-Strauss dies at age 100

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Wednesday, November 4, 2009

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Claude Lévi-Strauss, French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture, has died in Paris at the age of 100.

Lévi-Strauss was born on November 28, 1908 in Brussels, Belgium. Lévi-Strauss studied law and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris.

Lévi-Strauss lived in Brazil from 1935 to 1939. It was during this time that he undertook his first ethnographic fieldwork, conducting periodic research forays into the Mato Grosso and the Amazon Rainforest. He studied first the Guaycuru and Bororo Indian tribes, actually living among them for a while. Several years later, he returned for a second, year-long expedition to study the Nambikwara and Tupi-Kawahib societies. It was this experience that cemented Lévi-Strauss’s professional identity as an anthropologist. Edmund Leach suggests, from Lévi-Strauss’s own accounts in Tristes-Tropiques, that he could not have spent more than a few weeks with any place and was never able to converse easily with any of his native informants in their native language.

The war years in New York were formative for Lévi-Strauss in several ways. His relationship with Roman Jakobson helped shape his theoretical outlook (Jakobson and Lévi-Strauss are considered to be two of the central figures on which structuralist thought is based). In addition, Lévi-Strauss was also exposed to the American anthropology espoused by Franz Boas, who taught at Columbia University on New York’s Upper West Side. In 1942 in fact, while having dinner at the Faculty House at Columbia, Boas died of a heart attack in Lévi-Strauss’s arms. This intimate association with Boas gave his early work a distinctive American tilt that helped facilitate its acceptance in the U.S. After a brief stint from 1946 to 1947 as a cultural attaché to the French embassy in Washington, DC, Lévi-Strauss returned to Paris in 1948. It was at this time that he received his doctorate from the Sorbonne by submitting, in the French tradition, both a “major” and a “minor” thesis. These were The Family and Social Life of the Nambikwara Indians and The Elementary Structures of Kinship.

Lévi-Strauss’ later works are more controversial, in part because they impinge on the subject matter of other scholars. He believed that modern life and all history was founded on the same categories and transformations that he had discovered in the Brazilian back country – The Raw and the Cooked, From Honey to Ashes, The Naked Man (to borrow some titles from the Mythologiques). For instance he compares anthropology to musical serialism and defends his “philosophical” approach. He also pointed out that the modern view of primitive cultures was simplistic in denying them a history. The categories of myth did not persist among them because nothing had happened – it was easy to find the evidence of defeat, migration, exile, repeated displacements of all the kinds known to recorded history. Instead, the mythic categories had encompassed these changes.

Lévi-Strauss is survived by his wife Monique Roman and two sons.



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May 15, 2009

Mexico presents first population-wide genome map for a Latin country

Mexico presents first population-wide genome map for a Latin country

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Segment of a DNA molecule, which stores genetic information in chromosomes, which in turn make up an organism’s genome. This image presents only 12 base pairs, while the human genome consists of over 3 billion base pairs.
Image: Richard Wheeler (Zephyris) .

Friday, May 15, 2009

National Institute of Genomic Medicine of Mexico (Inmegen) Director Gerardo Jiménez Sánchez presented in Los Pinos the genome map of Mexicans, a stepping-stone for Latin American genomic medicine.

Previous endeavours of this kind had so far only covered some of the most ancient races on the planet, native from Africa, Europe and Asia, leaving out the recently admixed races of Latin America.

During the ceremony Jiménez, who led the project, symbolically presented President Felipe Calderón with a hard copy of the results. Calderón then uploaded the map to the Internet making it publicly available for researchers around the world. The President commented on the research being a step towards population-specific predictive medicine and medications, and particularly useful for Latin America for being genetically closer to the Mestizo peoples of those countries than genome maps published so far.

Among other results, the five year-long work found that, while sharing the 99.9% of the genome common to all humans, in the remaining portion the Mexican population has significant genetic variation from the world’s other known genetic subgroups. This makes importing genome maps from other groups unfeasible, and hence justifies the study.

Also, by comparing with data sets from the HapMap Project (a map of the human genome’s haplotypes, which are clusters of the possible genetic variations a human individual can present), it was found that Mexicans share 64% of their haplotypes with West Africans, 74% with East Asians and 81% with Northern Europeans.

Genetic analyses aimed at common disorders in Mexico like diabetes, obesity and breast cancer are yet to be performed. “With a drop of saliva we would be able to tell whether to prescribe a medication or not”, forecast Jiménez about the applications of the genome map in the long run.

“Studies such as this are helping us define the future of the genome era”, commented U.S. Translational Genomics Research Institute President Jeffrey Trent. “Gaining a clearer understanding of how genetic variation plays a role in disease, including the risk to some infections, will help tip the scales in our favour in terms of understanding and treating disease at the individual level”, he added.

“It is not possible today to say genetic variation is responsible for the unique H1N1 Influenza A mortality rate in Mexico. However, knowledge of genomic variability in the Mexican population can allow the identification of genetic variations that confer susceptibility to common diseases, including infections such as the flu”, said Jiménez when talking about the current swine flu outbreak.

Recently, however, Inmegen’s Multifactorial Diseases Genomic Research Laboratory head Lorena Orozco revealed that one fifth of the Mexican population have genes in their immune system that can trigger an immune overreaction in presence of some diseases. According to Orozco one of these genes is responsible for symptoms similar to the ones A/H1N1 victims presented, which makes it a strong candidate for explaining these deaths.

Although blood samples were collected from 10 different states and 4 Amerindian populations, the published results are based on data from only 6 states and 1 Amerindian population. The presentation ceremony and the online publication of the research paper in the PNAS journal came just days after the Mexican Government came under criticism for its low investment in science and the resulting dependency on other countries in the beginning of the current sanitary crisis.



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March 21, 2008

Bones of \’small-bodied humans\’ found in Micronesian cave

Bones of ‘small-bodied humans’ found in Micronesian cave

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Friday, March 21, 2008

Another population of small humans has been reported, this time in caves in Micronesia.

Modern adult bones left, Palau small human bones center and right.

Lee Berger, Steven Churchill, Bonita De Klerk and Rhonda Quinn, a team of paleontologists and anthropologists from South Africa and the United States document a group of “small-bodied humans” found in the ” in limestone caves in the rock islands of Palau, Micronesia.” The report, in a recent edition of the open access journal, PLoS ONE (2008 3:3) argues that these small people may “represent a congenitally abnormal individual drawn from a small-bodied island population of Homo Sapiens.” The term for this condition is Insular Dwarfism described in Foster’s Rule. Different radio carbon samples at the site date between 3000 and 4500 calendar years before the present, with the 3000 year old dates being judged the most reliable.

The authors argue, “Based on the evidence from Palau, we [Berger et al] hypothesize that reduction in the size of the face and chin, large dental size and other features noted here may in some cases be correlates of extreme body size reduction in H. sapiens.”

Unlike the 2004 find of the Flores dwarf human population (dated from 95,000 to 13,000 years ago), known as Homo floresienses and nicknamed hobbits, researchers do not consider this population to be a separate hominid population. They also suggest that this more recent population casts some doubt on H. floresienses being a separate species, and that,

“These features when seen in Flores may be best explained as correlates of small body size in an island adaptation, regardless of taxonomic affinity…[This] Palauan sample supports at least the possibility that the Flores hominins are simply an island adapted population of H. sapiens, perhaps with some individuals expressing congenital abnormalities.”

In support of this, Berger et al also argued that although the dwarf humans appeared to have many features in commons with Homo sapiens, there seems to be many features that are not usually associated with Homo sapiens.


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August 23, 2007

New fossils from 10 million year old ape found in Ethiopia

New fossils from 10 million year old ape found in Ethiopia

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Thursday, August 23, 2007

Researchers say that new, ten million-year-old fossils found in Ethiopia, prove that the theory that humans may have evolved from a species of great apes eight million years ago, may not be true, but that humans may have split from apes as long as 10.5 million years ago.

At least nine fossilized teeth, one canine tooth and eight molars, of a previously unknown species of apes found in Africa were discovered by a team of researchers from Ethiopia and Japan who then compared the 3-D make up of the teeth to other fossils that date back as far as 8 million years and found that the fossils are likely a “direct ancestor” of apes currently living in Africa and that the new ape fossils were that of a species of gorilla who ate mostly plants high in fiber.

Current fossils and research say that the evolutionary split from apes to humans occurred at least eight million years ago. The new fossils say that the split may have happened as long as 10.5 million years ago.

“Based on this fossil, that means the split is much earlier than has been anticipated by the molecular evidence. That means everything has to be put back,” said researcher at the Rift Valley Research Service in Ethiopia and a co-author of the study, Berhane Asfaw.

Despite the finds, other researchers are not convinced that the findings are correct.

“It is stretching the evidence to base a time scale for the evolution of the great apes on this new fossil. These structures appear on at least three independent lineages of apes, including gorillas, and they could relate to a dietary shift rather than indicating a new genetic trait,” said a Professor at the London Natural History Museum in the United Kingdom, Peter Andrews who also added, “but the fossil evidence for the evolution of our closest living relatives, the great apes, is almost non-existent.

Researchers have named the newly discovered species Cororapithecus abyssinicus whose remains were found in the Afar Region of Ethiopia, the same place where the remains of Lucy were discovered in 1974.

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June 3, 2007

Ancestors of humans learned to walk in trees, study says

Ancestors of humans learned to walk in trees, study says

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An orangutan.

Sunday, June 3, 2007

Scientists from the United Kingdom who spent one year watching orangutans have revealed in a study that humans may have learned to walk while still living in the trees, and that humans may not be that closely related to chimpanzees.

“An increasing number of people have been questioning this old ‘up from the apes’ idea” of how bipedalism evolved. As the forests became sparse, the strategy of our human ancestors was more or less to abandon the canopies and come down to the ground, where they could use this bipedalism immediately to get around,” said one University of Liverpool scientist who headed the study, Robin Crompton.

Museums and schools across the world have been teaching that humans evolved from an animal much like that of a chimpanzee and that humans started to walk along the forest floors, with their arms hanging, and knuckles scraping across the ground. It is also taught that those animals then began to walk upright once they adapted to living on the ground.

Orangutans were observed by researcher Susannah Thorpe of the University of Birmingham in Sumatra, Indonesia for one year. She documented that the orangutans would generally walk on their hands and feet, but when food was at a height that they could not reach, the orangutans would stand on their feet, extend upright, and grab the fruit or food item they want. This movement also allowed them to swing from the branches of trees more efficiently, without having to touch the forest floor.

‘Lucy’ replica in Senckenberg-Museum, Frankfurt, Germany.
Image: Gerbil.

“When they move to the skinniest branches, where the tastiest fruit grows, they stand stiffly straight-legged, like a person. It’s energetically quite economical for orangutans to feed and move on these bendy branches using bipedalism,” said Thorpe who also has over 3,000 different movements on film that show orangutans standing on their own 2 feet, upright, and reaching for objects.

“Our conclusion is that arboreal bipedalism had very strong adaptive benefits. So, we don’t need to explain how our ancestors could have gone from being quadrupedal to being bipedal,” added Thorpe.

The researchers also compared evidence from the remains of Lucy, past climate conditions on the planet and fossils to the workings of orangutans, and all suggest that humans were living and swinging in the trees for a much longer period of time than previously thought. The study shows that humans may have learned to walk at least 24 million years ago, rather than 6 million years ago.

Some experts disagree with the study.

“The main evidence is that our closest living relatives are not orangutans, they’re chimps and gorillas, and since both climb trees and walk on their knuckles, it’s most likely our ancestors did that too. One of the only anatomical features we share explicitly with chimps and gorillas is that we only have eight wrists bones, while almost all other primates have nine. In humans, chimps and gorillas, two bones have fused into one to stabilise the wrist, making it stronger for knuckle-walking. It’s not a smoking gun, but it’s the best evidence we have,” said anthropologist at George Washington University, Brian Richmond.

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July 6, 2006

Portuguese Culture Ministry suspends opening of Afonso I\’s tomb

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Sunday, June 3, 2007

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    Sunday, June 3, 2007

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