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August 12, 2010

Prospective Nobel Prize for Higgs boson work disputed

Prospective Nobel Prize for Higgs boson work disputed

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Thursday, August 12, 2010

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Amid recent rumors and news on the progress to find the Higgs boson, a dispute has arisen as to who should get credit for the discovery and the resulting Nobel Prize in Physics.

2010 J.J. Sakurai Prize Winners – Kibble, Guralnik, Hagen, Englert, and Brout (Peter Higgs was not present)

Six people, across three different teams, are credited with this discovery: Robert Brout and François Englert of the Université Libre de Bruxelles; Peter Higgs of University of Edinburgh; and G. S. Guralnik at Brown University, C. R. Hagen of the University of Rochester, and Tom Kibble at Imperial College London.

Three papers written in 1964 explained what is now known as the “Englert-Brout-Higgs-Guralnik-Hagen-Kibble mechanism” (or Higgs mechanism and Higgs boson for short). The mechanism is the key element of the electroweak theory that forms part of the Standard model of particle physics. The papers that introduce this mechanism were published in Physical Review Letters in 1964 and were each recognized as milestone papers by PRL’s 50th anniversary celebration.

“There are six people who developed the mechanism in quick succession and who hold a legitimate claim to credit for it,” says particle physicist Frank Close at the University of Oxford, UK. Because the Swedish Royal Academy of Science can award Nobel prizes to no more than three people, this puts six men aiming for half as many Nobel medals, should the particle be found. The Nobel committee can award the prize to groups and associations.

Fermilab’s Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are searching for a particle that will constitute evidence for this significant discovery. Recent progress has given a new urgency not only to the race to find the particle, but also to establishing authorship of the ideas behind it. As John Ellis, a particle physicist based at CERN, acknowledges: “Let’s face it, a Nobel Prize is at stake.”

The issue over credit and authorship was highlighted late July in France when the American and British team of Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble were omitted from the conference overview web site. Several groups threatened to boycott and raised the issue in discussions of the theory behind the on-going search for the particle. One of the meeting’s organizers, Gregorio Bernardi at the Laboratory of Nuclear and High Energy Physics in Paris, admits that the committee was surprised by the strength of objections leveled at the web advertisement and the committee. “People took this very seriously, which we didn’t expect,” he says.

Physicist Tom Ferbel said the snub by the French conference organizers was “insulting” and “chilling”, noting that the American Physical Society awarded the 2010 J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics to all six physicists for this theory. “I do fear,” he said, “that the myopic views of the organizers could definitely impact the decisions of the Swedish Academy.”

The conference organizers acknowledged that their choice was controversial by inviting a special talk on the tangled history of the mechanism, providing a forum for disgruntled conference participants to debate the matter. However, although the meeting ultimately ran smoothly, it seems likely that arguments over this issue will become more heated now that the Higgs particle is perceived to be within reach. As John Ellis states, “I’m just glad that I’m not on the Nobel committee deciding who to throw out of the lifeboat.”



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April 9, 2010

German Physical Society demands nuclear disarmament

German Physical Society demands nuclear disarmament

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Friday, April 9, 2010

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The German Physical Society, founded in Magnus-Haus, Berlin Mitte 1845.
Image: Wikimedia contributor Beek100.

A German newspaper has recently reported on a declaration of the German Physical Society advocating to start negotiations on a Nuclear weapons convention for the elimination of all nuclear weapons before the year 2020.

Encompassing more than 58,000 members and all German laureates of the physics Nobel prize of the recent years, the German Physical Society or Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG) represents the largest professional organization of physicists worldwide. Its recent statement advances the forthcoming review conference on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to be held in next month. The declaration points out: “Indeed, it is with a certain sense of relief we can state that since the mid-1980s, a large proportion of the more than 70,000 nuclear weapons have been reduced. Yet today’s deployed nuclear weapons are still sufficient to extinguish modern civilization. In addition, nothing has changed about the fundamental inhumanity of nuclear armaments, because their use would affect military targets as well as civilian populations indiscriminately, and thus would be generally contrary to existing international humanitarian law, based on the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice.”

The physicists are particularly concerned about the proliferation of nuclear weapons, expecting “that a regional use of nuclear weapons could become more likely if more states or even terror groups obtain access to weapons-grade fissile material”. Having a closer look to the continued work of weapon laboratories of the nuclear powers, they state: “We cannot accept that nuclear weapons continue to be developed today.” Strengthening the non-proliferation requires the “nuclear powers to meet their responsibility for complete implementation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty”, who pledged in its Article VI “to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament”.

The DPG addresses in its statement the perspective of a nuclear weapon free world as outlined by US president in his Prague’s speech last year and that has been supported by Russia’s president, . Probably, the chances for the physicists have never been better before to achieve a complete abolition of nuclear weapons as it has been negotiated upon in the case of biological und chemical weapons. The continued development of such weapons of mass destruction appears to DPG and its members as “inconsistent with the ethical principles to which we as scientists are committed.”



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April 1, 2010

Large Hadron Collider reaches milestone

Large Hadron Collider reaches milestone – Wikinews, the free news source

Large Hadron Collider reaches milestone

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Thursday, April 1, 2010

A simulated event in the CMS detector
Image: CMS Media.

The Large Hadron Collider—the world’s largest science experiment—shattered records Tuesday by successfully colliding particle beams at a combined energy of 7 teraelectronvolts (TeV). This marks a milestone in the collider’s progress, and will usher in the beginning of up to two years of intensive investigations.

In just a few hours, detectors along the LHC’s 17-mile tube recorded 500,000 collision events. Two beams of protons were sent in opposite directions, each with an energy of 3.5 TeV, guided by thousands of large electromagnets.

Guido Tonelli, a spokesman for one of the detectors, said “Major discoveries will happen only when we are able to collect billions of events and identify among them the very rare events that could present a new state of matter or new particles.”

The LHC will eventually shut down for about a year to prepare for 14-TeV collisions. Scientists will ultimately sift through information on billions of collision events, in hope that the results will lead to a “new era in science”.



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  • “Large Hadron Collider restarted” — Wikinews, November 21, 2009
  • “Large particle accelerators to explore the frontiers of physics” — Wikinews, September 16, 2008

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November 30, 2009

LHC sets new particle energy acceleration record

LHC sets new particle energy acceleration record

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Monday, November 30, 2009

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Large superconducting magnets at the LHC. The magnets were made at Fermilab, an American laboratory specializing in particle physics.
Image: gamsiz.

The world’s Large Hadron Collider accelerated its protons to an energy of 1.18 TeV at 00:44 GMT+1 today. This set a new world record, surpassing the 0.98 TeV record set at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory’s Tevatron collider, which was commissioned in Chicago in 2001. The event came ten days after the LHC collider restart.

Yesterday at 20:48 UTC, one proton beam was accelerated to 1050 GeV (1.05 TeV) in LHC. Three hours later, the next record was set by two beams of opposite direction, 1.18 TeV each.

The CERN researchers are delighted with the quick progress and are happy with the excellent performance of the machine. Steve Myers, director of accelerators and technology at the Cern particle physics laboratory near Geneva, commented on LHC optimistically, comparing it with the twenty-year old Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP): “I was here 20 years ago when we switched on Cern’s last major particle accelerator, LEP. I thought that was a great machine to operate, but this is something else. What took us days or weeks with LEP, we’re doing in hours with the LHC. So far, it all augurs well for a great research programme.”

High proton beam energy is needed to get many proton-proton collisions. However, all elements of the system need to be monitored carefully, and sudden energy increases are undesirable to ensure that the machine operates within normal parameters, in order to avoid a repeat of the superconductive magnet quench and consequent six-tonne liquid helium leak catastrophe on September 19, 2008, nine days after the first start. The damage caused by the leak, and the subsequent repairs and upgrades to the LHC that were needed, caused a delay of more than a year in the commissioning of the collider.

“We are still coming to terms with just how smoothly the LHC commissioning is going. It is fantastic. However, we are continuing to take it step-by-step, and there is still a lot to do before we start physics in 2010” said Cern’s director general Rolf Heuer.



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November 25, 2009

Sakurai Prize awarded for Higgs boson theories

Sakurai Prize awarded for Higgs boson theories

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Wednesday, November 25, 2009

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The American Physical Society has awarded its 2010 J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics to six scientists for their contributions to theories on the origin of mass, including the key concepts of the Higgs boson and Higgs mechanism. The recipients are:

  • C. R. Hagen, University of Rochester
  • Gerald Guralnik, Brown University
  • Tom Kibble, Imperial College London
  • Robert Brout, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • François Englert, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  • Peter Higgs, University of Edinburgh, Emeritus

The full citation stated the prize was awarded “For elucidation of the properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking in four-dimensional relativistic gauge theory and of the mechanism for the consistent generation of vector boson masses.” The J. J. Sakurai Prize will be presented at the APS 2010 meeting in Washington, DC at a special Ceremonial session in February 2010.

The Higgs mechanism is a key element of the electroweak theory that forms part of the Standard Model of particle physics, and of many models that go beyond it. The papers that introduce this mechanism were published in the journal Physical Review Letters in 1964 and were each recognized as milestone papers by PRL’s 50th anniversary celebration.

The Large Hadron Collider at CERN and the Tevatron in the United States are searching for a particle, the Higgs boson, that will constitute evidence for this theory. Because of its importance this particle is often referred to as the “God Particle”. The LHC, a vast scientific experiment to smash together sub-atomic particles, recently moved a step closer to its goal. On Friday physicists announced they had sent protons all the way round the 27 km ring beneath the France–Switzerland border, and on Monday announced the first successful collisions. This follows a major setback which shut down the collider for 14 months.



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November 21, 2009

Large Hadron Collider restarted

Large Hadron Collider restarted – Wikinews, the free news source

Large Hadron Collider restarted

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Saturday, November 21, 2009

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The Large Hadron Collider, a vast scientific experiment to smash together sub-atomic particles, moved a step closer to its goal on Friday night. Physicists announced they had sent protons all the way round the 27 km ring beneath the France–Switzerland border, for the first time since a major failure 14 months ago.

Part of the LHC’s 27 km of tunnels
Image: Julian Herzog.

The experiment, the largest of its kind in the world, was first switched on with great fanfare in September 2008, but suffered an electrical fault just nine days later. This caused a leak of ultra-cold liquid helium, resulting in severe damage. Repairs have cost approximately £24 million, on top of the £6 billion spent originally.

Particles were injected into the ring at around 1500 GMT on Friday, and just after 1930 GMT the first completed circuit was confirmed. Further testing is planned for Saturday.

“We’ve still got some way to go before physics can begin, but with this milestone we’re well on the way,” stated Rolf Heuer, director-general of CERN, the European research group running the collider.

The Large Hadron Collider is designed to smash together particles at almost the speed of light, creating conditions similar to those only moments after the Big Bang. By studying these collisions, scientists hope to shed light on theories such as supersymmetry and the Higgs boson. The six physicists Guralnik, Hagen, Kibble, Higgs, Brout, and Englert who predicted this particle in 1964 were recently awarded the 2010 J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics for this work.

Barring further problems, the first collisions are scheduled to take place in January next year.



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July 10, 2009

Canada pursues new nuclear research reactor to produce medical isotopes

Canada pursues new nuclear research reactor to produce medical isotopes

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Friday, July 10, 2009

Health
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The Saskatchewan provincial government alongside the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) have come together to establish a CA$500 million, 10 megawatts research nuclear reactor to produce medical isotopes.

Brad Wall, the Premier of Saskatchewan
Image: DanielPaquet.

“In 1949 … cobalt-60 treatment was tried for the first time here in Saskatchewan, where it saved a woman battling cervical cancer. Maybe we can lead again in terms of nuclear medicine,” said Brad Wall, the Premier of Saskatchewan, “Governments should be involved in pure research. We’re dealing with some circumstances as they present themselves”

“We’ve had faculty that are interested in this. We have an issue of national importance, We see a reason why the U of S and the province could assist in this national issue. We see how it could help the country. We see how it could build on the university’s research strength,” said Richard Florizone, U of S vice-president of finance and resources.

The research conducted at the Canadian Light Source Synchrotron on campus would be enhanced by a research reactor.

“In the case of a power reactor, in Saskatchewan we have much better alternatives. In the case of a medical isotopes research reactor, this may be a circumstance where the benefits outweigh the risks,” said Peter Prebble, director of energy and water policy for the Saskatchewan Environmental Society.

U of S located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (red star on map)

The nuclear reactor at Chalk River, Ontario in Canada was shut down on Thursday, May 14 by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) due to a leak of heavy water and will not re-open until late 2009 or spring of 2010.

The repairs of the NRU are complex and challenging. “I’ve heard it described as . . . trying to change the oil in your car from your living room. We’re faced with conducting remote investigations in a radioactive environment with high radiation fields, conducting the examinations and inspections through small openings in the top of the reactor and accessing over great distances,” said David Cox, director of the NRU engineering task force.

“The unplanned shutdown of the NRU will result in a significant shortage of medical isotopes in Canada, and in the world, this summer,” said Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of Health and Lisa Raitt, Minister of Natural Resources.

The Petten reactor in the Netherlands is another of the six extant nuclear reactors globally. It must also be shut down between mid July and mid August.

Medical isotopes are used in diagnostic procedures for cancer, heart disease and other medical conditions. When radioactive isotopes are injected into the body, radiologists can view higher radiation via medical imaging, enabling them to make a more accurate diagnosis.



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  • “Canadian nuclear reactor shutdown causes worldwide medical isotope shortage” — Wikinews, May 20, 2009

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September 21, 2008

Large Hadron Collider damaged, to be shut down for repairs

Large Hadron Collider damaged, to be shut down for repairs

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Sunday, September 21, 2008

Large Hadron Collider tunnel and dipole magnets.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN, Geneva suffered light damage on September 19, 2008 when one of the giant superconducting magnets that guide the protons failed during a test. A large amount of helium, which is used to cool the magnets to 1.9 Kelvin (-271C; -456F) leaked into the collider tunnel. LHC will now be shut down for at least two months for repairs. Physicists say such setbacks are an inevitable part of starting up such a large and complicated machine.

Several mishaps, including the failure of a 30 ton electrical transformer, have slowed LHC’s progress since the initial start-up on September 10, 2008. The laboratory said in a statement that an electrical connection between the magnets had melted because of the high current. The machine has more than 1,200 dipole magnets arranged end-to-end in the underground ring. These magnets carry and steer the proton beams which will accelerate around the machine at close to the speed of light. One of the LHC’s eight sectors will now have to be warmed up to well above its operating temperature so that repairs can take place.

Cquote1.svg It’s too early to say whether we’ll still be having collisions this year. Cquote2.svg

—James Gillies, Chief of Communications, CERN

The collider is designed to accelerate protons to energies of seven trillion electron volts and collide them together in search of new particles and forces. After the initial success of accelerating protons through the machine, physicists had hoped they could move ahead quickly to low energy collisions at 450 billion electron volts and then 5 trillion electron volt collisions as early as mid-October.

The recent setbacks, however, mean that hopes the first trial collisions would be carried out before the machine’s official inauguration on October 21, 2008 now look doubtful. It even looks uncertain whether this can be achieved before 2009.



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September 16, 2008

Large particle accelerators to explore the frontiers of physics

Large particle accelerators to explore the frontiers of physics

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Tuesday, September 16, 2008

Tunnel of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that started preliminary experiments on September 10, 2008 in CERN, Geneva, and the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) will carry out a series of experiments in the future to validate the standard model of particle physics. The model predicts that Higgs boson particles gives mass to all fundamental particles and explains the existence of dark matter, or invisible matter in between galaxies.

The LHC is a 27 kilometer long circular high energy particle accelerator which took more than 20 years and USD $9 billion to build. In the next few weeks the machine will collide opposing beams of protons charged with approximately 7 TeV of energy resulting in cataclysmic conditions that will mimic the beginning of time, a re-creation of the Big Bang.

An upgraded version of the LHC was announced, nicknamed the “super LHC”. The new accelerator will perform ten times the number of collisions as the current LHC over the same time. The upgrade will feature a new injection system and enhanced detectors to cope with the increase in data packets from collisions.

The bigger International Linear Collider, nicknamed “Einstein’s telescope”, is planned by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP). The ILC will have a collision energy of 500 GeV and will collide electrons with particles of antimatter, called positrons, along a 30-40 km completely straight tunnel. The ILC’s two giant “guns” pointing at each other would be able to accelerate electrons and positrons to near-light speeds before smashing them together.

“The LHC smashes protons together to discover new particles but also generates lots of debris that obscures the fine detail. The ILC would be a much cleaner machine and tell us far more about their real nature.” says Brian Foster, professor of experimental physics at Oxford University and European director of the project. The host country for the ILC has not yet been chosen but it is planned to have the machine constructed by late 2010. The new machine will cost an estimated USD $7 billion to build. Physicists hope that ILC might be able to resolve some of the questions raised by Einstein’s theories of relativity.



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July 16, 2008

KSTAR tokamak test reactor sees first plasma

KSTAR tokamak test reactor sees first plasma

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Wednesday, July 16, 2008

The KSTAR test reactor
Image: Michel Maccagnan.

Diagram of the fields created by a tokamak style reactor to contain plamsa

On July 15, 2008, the scientists behind the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Reactor) project tested the device by creating “first plasma”. This is analogous to the first light of a telescope. KSTAR’s task is to test and study various techniques and technologies that will eventually be involved in the commercialization of fusion energy. It is also part of the ITER fusion research project, which has the goal of attempting to usher in an era of environmentally friendly and almost unlimited energy.

Although it isn’t at the core of the ITER mission, KSTAR has still achieved several milestones in physics and fusion energy production. It is currently the largest tokamak type reactor in the world, and it is one of the first reactors to use fully superconducting magnets of the same type as those that will be installed in ITER. KSTAR will be studying the use of both hydrogen and deuterium for potential fusion fuel sources, but is not intended to look into the use of tritium, which will be studied by the main ITER reactor once it has been completed.

KSTAR requires 30 supercooled (-268°C) superconducting magnets – weighing in at a combined 300 tons – in order to contain the plasma, which can reach temperatures up to one hundred million degrees. No known substance could contain matter at those temperatures, so magnetic fields must be employed to keep the plasma from coming into contact with the components of the reactor.

Kwon Eun-Hee, who works for the National Fusion Research Institute, said, “Today’s demonstration was highly successful.” Ryu Koo-hee, speaking on behalf of the Korean ministries of Education and Science and Technology, added that “[t]he generation of plasma proves that KSTAR is ready to operate and contribute significantly to the research for nuclear fusion.”


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