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September 29, 2018

A hacker threatened to delete Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook page

Filed under: Computing,Science and technology — admin @ 5:00 am

A hacker threatened to delete Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook page

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Saturday, September 29, 2018

Facebook Inc

On September 27, a Facebooker who goes by the name Chang Chi-yuan threatened to gain unauthorised access to the page of Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook. Writing in a Facebook post to his 26,000 followers, he promised to delete the Facebook founder’s account, and broadcast himself doing so on Facebook Live on Sunday. Chang is said to be a well-known hacker in Taiwan, according to Bloomberg.

The action was scheduled to begin Sunday at 6pm local time. Globally, that translated to 3AM in San Francisco / 6AM New York / 11AM London / 12PM Berlin / 1PM Moscow / 3:30PM Delhi / 6PM Beijing / 7PM Tokyo / 8PM Sydney.

Chang was once sued by a local bus operator for gaining unauthorized access into its system and buying a ticket for a single Taiwanese dollar (equivalent to 3 US cents). He has also posted screenshots of Facebook’s responses to his bug reports.

Chang, and his Facebook page, are listed as a “Special Contributor” in Line Corp.’s bug bounty hall of fame for 2016.

Chang has written previously about using such techniques to earn some money. Facebook has an ongoing bug bounty whereby security researchers who report vulnerabilities in its service will be recognized and rewarded.

If the upcoming event at Facebook which Chang claims he will do was successful, it would not be the first time Mark Zuckerberg’s page has been compromised. In 2011, someone successfully managed to post a status update from Zuckerberg’s account, encouraging the founder to let users invest in the social media network and turn it into a “social business.”



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September 26, 2018

Study suggests Mars hosted life-sustaining habitat for millions of years

Study suggests Mars hosted life-sustaining habitat for millions of years

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  • 26 September 2018: Study suggests Mars hosted life-sustaining habitat for millions of years
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  • 31 July 2018: Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018
  • 19 July 2018: US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites
  • 7 May 2018: NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars

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Wednesday, September 26, 2018

In a new study announced on Monday and available in the current volume of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, an international team led by scientists from Brown University in the United States said the planet Mars once had the right water and temperatures to host simple life forms — just not on its surface. Mars’s rocky, subterranean layer once, for some hundreds of millions of years, had enough water and reductants to support some of the same kinds of microbial communities seen on Earth.

“We showed, based on basic physics and chemistry calculations, that the ancient Martian subsurface likely had enough dissolved hydrogen to power a global subsurface biosphere,” reported lead author and current Brown graduate student Jesse Tarnas. The paper does not claim life on Mars did exist but rather that conditions suitable for life are very likely to have lasted for an extended time. This habitable zone, located beneath Mars’s then-frozen surface, would have reached several kilometers into Mars’s surface, potentially protected by ice above.

The study showed that, during Mars’s Noachian period (4.1–3.7 billion years ago), radiolysis, the process by which radiation splits water molecules apart, produced enough hydrogen gas (H2) for microbial organisms to live on so long as they remained within the area just beneath the cryosphere, the SHZ (subcryospheric highly-fractured zone). The concentration of hydrogen in the groundwater could have ranged from about 35 to about 55 millimolars depending on whether ancient Mars was warm or cold, respectively, and higher if the subsurface medium also contained enough salt. The researchers determined this by establishing three factors. First, they examined data from the gamma ray spectrometer aboard NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft, from which they inferred how much of various radioactive elements would have been present in Mars’s crust during the Noachian, and therefore how much radiation would have been available to split water and so produce hydrogen. They then built on existing models of water flow on Mars to determine how much groundwater would have been present. Third, they used climate and geothermal modeling to determine how much of that water would have been in liquid form and at a suitable temperature for living things.

In subterranean environments on Earth called subsurface lithotrophic microbial ecosystems, or SLiMEs, ecosystems sustain themselves not on plants that harness sunlight through photosynthesis but on microbes that harvest electrons from nearby molecules. Molecular hydrogen is an especially good electron donor.

One of the study authors, Brown Professor John Mustard, is on the team designing the next Mars Rover mission, scheduled for 2020. He and Tarnas recommended the Rover examine the sites of meteorite crashes, which may have excavated rocks from this possibly habitable depth that may hold traces of ancient life.



Related news

  • “NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars” — Wikinews, May 7, 2018
  • “Curiosity Rover analysis suggests chemically complex lake once graced Mars’s Gale crater” — Wikinews, June 4, 2017
  • NASA announces water on Mars” — Wikinews, October 1, 2015

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September 25, 2018

Mars hosted life-sustaining habitat for millions of years, say scientists

Mars hosted life-sustaining habitat for millions of years, say scientists

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Space
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  • 20 September 2018: NASA’s TESS spacecraft reports its first exoplanet
  • 31 July 2018: Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018
  • 19 July 2018: US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites
  • 7 May 2018: NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars
  • 21 April 2018: NASA launches exoplanet-hunting satellite TESS

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Tuesday, September 25, 2018

In a new study announced on Monday and available in the current volume of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, an international team led by scientists from Brown University in the United States said the planet Mars once had the right water and temperatures to host simple life forms — just not on its surface. Mars’s rocky, subterranean layer once, for some hundreds of millions of years, had enough water and reductants to support some of the same kinds of microbial communities seen on Earth.

“We showed, based on basic physics and chemistry calculations, that the ancient Martian subsurface likely had enough dissolved hydrogen to power a global subsurface biosphere,” reported lead author and current Brown graduate student Jesse Tarnas. The paper does not claim life on Mars did exist but rather that conditions suitable for life are very likely to have lasted for an extended time. This habitable zone, located beneath Mars’s then-frozen surface, would have reached several kilometers into Mars’s surface, potentially protected by ice above.

The study showed that, during Mars’s Noachian period (4.1–3.7 billion years ago), radiolysis, the process by which radiation splits water molecules apart, produced enough hydrogen gas (H2) for microbial organisms to live on so long as they remained within the area just beneath the cryosphere, the SHZ (subcryospheric highly-fractured zone). The concentration of hydrogen in the groundwater could have ranged from about 35 to about 55 millimolars depending on whether ancient Mars was warm or cold, respectively, and higher if the subsurface medium also contained enough salt. The researchers determined this by establishing three factors. First, they examined data from the gamma ray spectrometer aboard NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft, from which they inferred how much of various radioactive elements would have been present in Mars’s crust during the Noachian, and therefore how much radiation would have been available to split water and so produce hydrogen. They then built on existing models of water flow on Mars to determine how much groundwater would have been present. Third, they used climate and geothermal modeling to determine how much of that water would have been in liquid form and at a suitable temperature for living things.

In subterranean environments on Earth called subsurface lithotrophic microbial ecosystems, or SLiMEs, ecosystems sustain themselves not on plants that harness sunlight through photosynthesis but on microbes that harvest electrons from nearby molecules. Molecular hydrogen is an especially good electron donor.

One of the study authors, Brown Professor John Mustard, is on the team designing the next Mars Rover mission, scheduled for 2020. He and Tarnas recommended the Rover examine the sites of meteorite crashes, which may have excavated rocks from this possibly habitable depth that may hold traces of ancient life.



Related news[]

  • “NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars” — Wikinews, May 7, 2018
  • “Curiosity Rover analysis suggests chemically complex lake once graced Mars’s Gale crater” — Wikinews, June 4, 2017
  • NASA announces water on Mars” — Wikinews, October 1, 2015

Sources[]

This text comes from Wikinews. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 licence. For a complete list of contributors for this article, visit the corresponding history entry on Wikinews.

September 24, 2018

Mars may once had habitat suitable for subterranean life, say scientists

Mars may once had habitat suitable for subterranean life, say scientists

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Space
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  • 31 July 2018: Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018
  • 19 July 2018: US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites
  • 7 May 2018: NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars
  • 21 April 2018: NASA launches exoplanet-hunting satellite TESS

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Monday, September 24, 2018

In a new study available in the current volume of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, a team led by scientists from Brown University in the United States says that the planet Mars once had the right water and temperatures to host simple life forms—just not on its surface. Mars’ rocky, subterranean layer once had enough water and reductants to support some of the same kinds of microbial communities seen on Earth, and this habitat lasted for hundreds of millions of years.

“We showed, based on basic physics and chemistry calculations, that the ancient Martian subsurface likely had enough dissolved hydrogen to power a global subsurface biosphere,” reports lead author Jesse Tarnas, currently a graduate student at Brown. The paper does not prove that life on Mars did exist but rather that conditions suitable for life are very likely to have lasted for eons. This habitable zone, located beneath Mars’ then-frozen surface, would have reached several kilometers into Mars’ surface, protected from freezing by the ice above.

The the study shows that, during Mars’ Noachian period (3.7–4.1 billion years ago), radiolysis, the process by which radiation splits water molecules apart, produced enough hydrogen gas (H2) for microbial organisms to live on so long as they remained within the area just beneath the cryosphere, the SHZ. The concentration of hydrogen in the groundwater could have ranged from about 35 to about 55 millimoles depending on whether ancient Mars was warm or cold, respectively, and higher if the subsurface medium also contained enough salt. The researchers determined this by establishing three factors. First, they examined data from the gamma ray spectrometer aboard NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft, from which they inferred how much uranium would have been present in Mars’ crust during the Noachian, and therefore how much radiation would have been available to split water and so produce hydrogen. Then built on existing models of water flow on Mars to determine how much groundwater would have been present. Third, they used climate and geothermal modeling to determine how much of that water would have been in liquid form and at a suitable temperature for living things.

In subterranean environments on Earth called subsurface lithotrophic microbial ecosystems, or SLiMEs, ecosystems sustain themselves not on plants that harness sunlight through photosynthesis but on microbes that harvest electrons from nearby molecules. Molecular hydrogen is an especially good electron donor.

One of the study authors, Brown Professor John Mustard, is on the team designing the next Mars Rover mission, scheduled for 2020. He and his co-authors recommend that the Rover examine the sites of meteorite crashes, which may have excavated rocks from this possibly habitable depth that may hold traces of ancient life.



Related news[]

  • “NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars” — Wikinews, May 7, 2018
  • “Curiosity Rover analysis suggests chemically complex lake once graced Mars’s Gale crater” — Wikinews, June 4, 2017
  • NASA announces water on Mars” — Wikinews, October 1, 2015

Sources[]

This text comes from Wikinews. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 licence. For a complete list of contributors for this article, visit the corresponding history entry on Wikinews.

Mars hosted a life-sustaining habitat for millions of years, say scientists

Mars hosted a life-sustaining habitat for millions of years, say scientists

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Space
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  • 20 September 2018: NASA’s TESS spacecraft reports its first exoplanet
  • 31 July 2018: Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018
  • 19 July 2018: US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites
  • 7 May 2018: NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars
  • 21 April 2018: NASA launches exoplanet-hunting satellite TESS

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Monday, September 24, 2018

In a new study available in the current volume of Earth and Planetary Science Letters, a team led by scientists from Brown University in the United States says the planet Mars once had the right water and temperatures to host simple life forms—just not on its surface. Mars’ rocky, subterranean layer once had enough water and reductants to support some of the same kinds of microbial communities seen on Earth, and this habitat lasted for hundreds of millions of years.

“We showed, based on basic physics and chemistry calculations, that the ancient Martian subsurface likely had enough dissolved hydrogen to power a global subsurface biosphere,” reports lead author Jesse Tarnas, currently a graduate student at Brown. The paper does not prove life on Mars did exist but rather that conditions suitable for life are very likely to have lasted for eons. This habitable zone, located beneath Mars’ then-frozen surface, would have reached several kilometers into Mars’ surface, protected from freezing by the ice above.

The the study shows that, during Mars’ Noachian period (3.7–4.1 billion years ago), radiolysis, the process by which radiation splits water molecules apart, produced enough hydrogen gas (H2) for microbial organisms to live on so long as they remained within the area just beneath the cryosphere, the SHZ. The concentration of hydrogen in the groundwater could have ranged from about 35 to about 55 millimoles depending on whether ancient Mars was warm or cold, respectively, and higher if the subsurface medium also contained enough salt. The researchers determined this by establishing three factors. First, they examined data from the gamma ray spectrometer aboard NASA’s Odyssey spacecraft, from which they inferred how much uranium would have been present in Mars’ crust during the Noachian, and therefore how much radiation would have been available to split water and so produce hydrogen. They then built on existing models of water flow on Mars to determine how much groundwater would have been present. Third, they used climate and geothermal modeling to determine how much of that water would have been in liquid form and at a suitable temperature for living things.

In subterranean environments on Earth called subsurface lithotrophic microbial ecosystems, or SLiMEs, ecosystems sustain themselves not on plants that harness sunlight through photosynthesis but on microbes that harvest electrons from nearby molecules. Molecular hydrogen is an especially good electron donor.

One of the study authors, Brown Professor John Mustard, is on the team designing the next Mars Rover mission, scheduled for 2020. He and his co-authors recommend the Rover examine the sites of meteorite crashes, which may have excavated rocks from this possibly habitable depth that may hold traces of ancient life.



Related news[]

  • “NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars” — Wikinews, May 7, 2018
  • “Curiosity Rover analysis suggests chemically complex lake once graced Mars’s Gale crater” — Wikinews, June 4, 2017
  • NASA announces water on Mars” — Wikinews, October 1, 2015

Sources[]

This text comes from Wikinews. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 licence. For a complete list of contributors for this article, visit the corresponding history entry on Wikinews.

September 20, 2018

NASA’s TESS spacecraft reports its first exoplanet

NASA’s TESS spacecraft reports its first exoplanet

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Space
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  • 20 September 2018: NASA’s TESS spacecraft reports its first exoplanet
  • 31 July 2018: Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018
  • 19 July 2018: US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites
  • 7 May 2018: NASA’s InSight lander and MarCO craft launch in new mission to Mars
  • 21 April 2018: NASA launches exoplanet-hunting satellite TESS

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Thursday, September 20, 2018

In findings released to the public on Monday through online site arXiv.org, astronomers reported they have already used data from the first photograph taken by National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) to locate an exoplanet. The planet, called Pi Mensae c, was spotted as it was transiting in front of its star, Pi Mensae (HD 39091). The paper describing the findings was being submitted to AAS Letter but had yet to be published in full.

“Here, we report on the discovery of a transiting planet around [Pi Mensae], exactly the type of planet TESS was designed to detect,” states a portion of the paper available to the public.

Scientists say the planet is roughly twice the diameter of Earth but about four times as massive. Findings for Pi Mensae c indicate it may contain helium, methane, hydrogen, and water but is deemed unlikely to support life because it is so close to its star.

TESS, which launched last April, created the light image over the course of 30 minutes on August 7, using four optical telescopes to photograph a small portion of the night sky. Its mission is slated to last two years and reports anticipate it could discover thousands of exoplanets.

This week in an unrelated project, researchers from the University of Florida spotted a planet circling a star named 40 Eriadni A (HD 26965). In the fictional universe of Star Trek, this star system is the home of the Vulcans like Mr. Spock. The exoplanet, officially called HD 26965b, has been nicknamed “Vulcan,” after this fictional planet.



Related news

  • “NASA launches exoplanet-hunting satellite TESS” — Wikinews, April 21, 2018

Sources

  • Chelsea X. Huang (MIT), Jennifer Burt, Andrew Vanderburg, Maximilian N. Günther, Avi Shporer, Jason A. Dittmann, Joshua N. Winn, Rob Wittenmyer, Lizhou Sha, Stephen R. Kane, George R. Ricker, Roland Vanderspek, David W. Latham, Sara Seager, Jon Jenkins, Douglas A. Caldwell, Karen A. Collins, Natalia Guerrero, Jeffrey C. Smith, Sam Quinn, Stéphane Udry, Francesco Pepe, François Bouchy, Damien Sé gransan, Christophe Lovis, David Ehrenreich, Maxime Marmier, Michel Mayor, Bill Wohler, Kari Haworth, Edward Morgan, Michael Fausnaugh, David Charbonneau, Norio Narita, the TESS team. “TESS Discovery of a Transiting Super-Earth in the Π Mensae System” — arXiv, September 16, 2018
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August 25, 2018

Fossil genome shows hybrid of two extinct species of human

Fossil genome shows hybrid of two extinct species of human

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Saturday, August 25, 2018

Biology
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A team of scientists has announced remains of a human girl from about 50 thousand years ago had one Neanderthal parent and one Denisovan parent, two different species of humans, both species now extinct. The results, from genomic tests in Leipzig, Germany of fossil bone from Siberia, Russia, were published on Wednesday in scientific journal Nature. The researchers said this is the first discovery of a child with parents of different human species.

The single fossilized bone fragment, about two centimetres (less than an inch) long, which researchers said was from a girl at least 13 years old, was found in 2012 in the Denisova Cave in Siberia. The Denisovan species of humans is only directly known from the same cave, where it was discovered in 2011; the cave is also the only site where both Nenderthal and Denisovan remains have been found. Neanderthals have been found in Europe and Asia. Traces of genes from both species occur in some modern humans. Researchers found the nuclear DNA in this bone fragment was split fairly evenly between both species, while the mitochondrial DNA was Neanderthal; nuclear DNA comes from both parents, while mitochondrial DNA comes only from the mother, so they concluded the girl’s mother was Neanderthal and her father Denisovan.

Lead author on the study Viviane Slon, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA) in Leipzig, said “We knew from previous studies that Neanderthals and Denisovans must have occasionally had children together […] But I never thought we would be so lucky as to find an actual offspring of the two groups.” The team rechecked the findings several times. Scientist Johannes Krause, of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, called the finding “sensational”. Study coauthor Svante Pääbo, of MPI-EVA, remarked on the improbability of discovering such a hybrid when only two dozen human genomes over 40 thousand years old —when the other species of humans were still around— have been done: “The fact that we stumbled across this makes you wonder if the mixing wasn’t quite frequent […] Had it happened frequently, we would not have such divergence between the Denisovans and Neanderthal genomes.”

The researchers also noted the girl’s father, though Denisovan, had a trace of Neanderthal DNA, from perhaps as much as several hundred generations earlier. They also reported the mother’s DNA was not closely related to that of other Neanderthals found in the cave, suggesting multiple migrations of Neanderthals between Siberia and Europe.



Sources

External links

  • Viviane Slon, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Benjamin Vernot, Cesare de Filippo, Steffi Grote, Bence Viola, Mateja Hajdinjak, Stéphane Peyrégne, Sarah Nagel, Samantha Brown, Katerina Douka, Tom Higham, Maxim B. Kozlikin, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Janet Kelso, Matthias Meyer, Kay Prüfer, Svante Pääbo. “The genome of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father” — Nature (journal), August 22, 2018
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July 31, 2018

Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018

Total lunar eclipse occurs in July 2018

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Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Observation from Chelsea, Victoria, Australia at 06:07am AEST (UTC+10).
Image: Ian Fieggen.

On Friday–Saturday —depending on observer’s timezone— a total lunar eclipse occurred as the Moon was in the shadow of the Earth. As normal during such an eclipse, the Moon became faint and turned completely red as bluer light was scattered by the Earth’s atmosphere. Totality of 1 hour and 43 minutes was the longest in the 21st century.

People were able to observe the eclipse from Australia, Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. A volunteer named José Jiménez uploaded a photo of the incident today from Alt Empordà in Girona, Catalonia, Spain, featuring the Moon, Mars, and the milky way on the same photo.

German astronaut Alexander Gerst took photos of the Moon from the International Space Station and uploaded them to Flickr on the same day.

According to timeanddate.com, the timeline of the eclipse was as follows.

Event Time (UTC)
July 27
Start penumbral eclipse 17:14:47
Start partial eclipse 18:24:27
Start full eclipse 19:30:15
Maximum eclipse 20:21:44
End full eclipse 21:13:11
End partial eclipse 22:19:00
End penumbral eclipse 23:28:38

Mars was also visible near the Moon; coming this week, reported 9News, closer to Earth than at any time since 2003.



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July 20, 2018

This whale can fly! Airbus Beluga XL makes maiden flight

This whale can fly! Airbus Beluga XL makes maiden flight

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Aviation

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Friday, July 20, 2018

On Thursday, after five years of development, the Airbus Beluga XL, painted with eyes and a smile to match its cetacean namesake, made its maiden flight, taking off from and landing at Toulouse, France, in front of a crowd of 10,000. The craft is expected to enter service next year.

Airbus plans to use the Beluga XL to shuttle airplane parts among its facilities in France and Germany. The XL has roughly 30% more cargo space than existing Beluga planes, and it can carry over 50 tons 2500 miles (4000 km) without refueling. It can carry two wings for the Airbus 350 plane in one trip, while the standard Beluga, which entered service in 1995, can carry only one. The Beluga XL is propelled by two Rolls-Royce Trent 700 Turbofan engines.

The plane is named for its resemblance to a Beluga whale. The front of the fuselage hinges upward to allow front-loading into the cargo space, creating the illusion of a round forehead. This feature was added by slinging the cockpit lower in the plane’s body, so cargo is passed over the pilots’ perch.

The Beluga joins such cargo planes as the Antonov An-225 Mriya was designed by the Soviet space program to carry spacecraft parts, and has a lifting capacity over five times that of the Beluga, but only one was ever built. Other massive planes include NASA’s Super Guppy, which is also used to carry spacecraft parts, and the United States military’s Lockheed C-5 Galaxy.



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July 19, 2018

US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites

US astronomers announce discovering ten tiny Jovian satellites

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Thursday, July 19, 2018

Space
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  • 21 April 2018: NASA launches exoplanet-hunting satellite TESS
  • 3 April 2018: China’s Tiangong-1 space station crashes into Pacific

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On Tuesday, astronomers of the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC, United States, announced the discovery of ten small satellites orbiting Jupiter. With this discovery, Jupiter now has 79 known satellites.

The team led by Scott Sheppard had discovered twelve of the 79 Jovian satellites, including Tuesday’s ten, mostly using a Blanco 4-meter telescope of Chile’s Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The observatory is operated by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in the US. The tiny satellites, none more than five kilometres in diameter, were first observed in 2017. Orbits of these new Jovian satellites were calculated by International Astronomical Union‘s Minor Planet Center‘s Gareth Williams. Williams explained, “It takes several observations to confirm an object actually orbits around Jupiter […] So, the whole process took a year.”

The astronomers were looking for planets much farther out than Pluto. Sheppard said, “Jupiter just happened to be in the sky near the search fields where we were looking for extremely distant Solar System objects, so we were serendipitously able to look for new moons around Jupiter while at the same time looking for planets at the fringes of our Solar System”.

Of the twelve satellites discovered by the team, nine were found to be retrograde, revolving around the gas giant in the direction opposite to the planet’s spin. These nine new retrograde satellites take about two years to complete one revolution around Jupiter.

The remaining three satellites were prograde, spinning in the same direction as Jupiter’s rotation. One of the prograde satellites, newly announced on Tuesday, took about one-and-half years to complete one revolution around Jupiter, and its orbit intersected with the outer retrograde satellites. Sheppard said, “Our other discovery is a real oddball and has an orbit like no other known Jovian moon […] It’s also likely Jupiter’s smallest known moon, being less than one kilometre in diameter”. The astronomer also said, “This is an unstable situation […] Head-on collisions would quickly break apart and grind the objects down to dust.”

Sheppard said of the composition of those satellites, they “started orbiting Jupiter, instead of falling into it. So we think they are intermediate between rocky asteroids and icy comets. So they are probably half ice and half rock.”

Valetudo” is the name suggested for the “oddball” satellite. Valetudo was the Roman god Jupiter‘s great-granddaughter, regarded as the goddess of health and hygiene.

Sheppard said, “Jupiter is like a big vacuum cleaner because it is so massive”. Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System, with a diameter about 142,984 kilometres. The largest known satellite in the Solar System is Jupiter’s Ganymede, whose diameter is approximately 5268 kilometres. Saturn has the second-most known satellites: 62, while Uranus has 27.



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