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June 21, 2011

Soviet human rights activist Yelena Bonner dies aged 88

Soviet human rights activist Yelena Bonner dies aged 88

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Tuesday, June 21, 2011

File:BonnerAndSakharovAndKallistratova1986.jpg
Yelena Bonner (left), Andrei Sakharov and Sofiya Kalistratova in Moscow, 1977.

Soviet human rights activist Yelena Bonner died of heart failure in Boston, Massachusetts on Saturday at the age of 88, her daughter Tatiana Yankelevich said in a statement. She had been hospitalized since February 21.

Bonner gained fame by smuggling the papers of her late husband, the nuclear physicist and Russian dissident Andrei Sakharov, out of Siberia and was prominent in her own right for her human rights activism.

Leaders and politicians paid Bonner tribute. “The world has lost one of the most inspiring and dedicated human rights defenders,” said Jerzy Buzek, President of the European Parliament.

Cquote1.svg The world has lost one of the most inspiring and dedicated human rights defenders. Cquote2.svg

Jerzy Buzek, President European Parliament

Bonner was born in Turkmenistan February 15, 1923 to a family of Communist Party officials; her father was later killed and her mother sent to a gulag in Joseph Stalin‘s purges of the late 1930s.

In 1941, she became a nurse for the Soviet military on the front during World War II. She suffered a severe wound to the chest, and serious head injuries in 1943 from which she nearly lost her sight, and received decorations for valor. Bonner returned to the front in 1945, advancing with the army to Potsdam. While studying medicine when the war was over, she married a fellow student, Ivan Semyonov and they had a son and a daughter. But as she became increasingly politically active, they lost their common interests and divorced in 1965.

She was an active Soviet dissident in the 1970s, and a leader of a group that monitored Soviet compliance with the Helsinki Accords. The Washington Post describes her at this time as “[h]eadstrong and sharp-tongued with a no-nonsense voice deepened by years of chain-smoking acrid Russian cigarettes”.

Bonner married Sakharov in 1972, whom she had met through her political activities. He was also fierce critic of the lack of civil liberties and human rights in the Soviet Union, and their tiny Moscow apartment became the meeting place for the Soviet dissident movement in the 1970s. They traveled around Russia together visiting imprisoned dissidents and working for their legal rights.

When Sakharov won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975, she traveled to Oslo to receive it on his behalf as Soviet authorities refused to allow her husband to leave the country.

Cquote1.svg We note with profound sadness the death of Yelena Bonner, an extraordinary voice among human rights defenders in the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. Cquote2.svg

—Victoria Nuland, U.S. State Department

Sakharove was arrested in 1980 and exiled to Siberia, and Bonner, Sakharove’s sole contact with the outside world, smuggled his writings to Moscow and ensured that they were published. Soviet authorities conducted campaigns of personal attacks against her, accusing her of being a foreign agent who turned Sakharove against his country. In 1984 she was convicted of “anti-Soviet agitation” and was exiled to Siberia with her husband, both continually harassed by authorities. She published her memoir in 1986 of the years in exile, described by the Washington Post as partly “a love story of mutual sacrifice.”

In 1986 Mikhail Gorbachev allowed the Sakharoves to return to Moscow where they continued to agitate for human rights and were constantly harassed for their activities.

When the Soviet Union collapsed two years after Sakharov’s death in 1989, Bonner continued her human rights and political activities. She initially supported President Boris Yeltsin‘s government and served on his state human rights commission, but became critical of his government at the beginning of the war in Chechnya. She was also critical of Yeltin’s successor, Vladimir Putin, and was the first person to sign a petition against him in March 2010.

As her health deteriorated, she became less active, and she moved to the United States to be with her daughter.

Bonner received the Rafto Prize in 1991 for her promotion of human rights in the former Soviet Union and in contemporary Russia. She published at least four books and edited her husband’s memoirs which were published in 1997.

U.S. State Department‘s spokesperson Victoria Nuland said in a statement: “We note with profound sadness the death of Yelena Bonner, an extraordinary voice among human rights defenders in the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.”



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December 21, 2006

Turkmenistan President Niyazov dies of heart condition

Turkmenistan President Niyazov dies of heart condition

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File:Saparmurat Niyazov 9may2005.jpg

President Niyazov in May 2005
(Image missing from commons: image; log)

Thursday, December 21, 2006

President Niyazov of Turkmenistan had declared himself to be “President For Life” in 1999 after his last elected victory in 1992 and had not selected a successor. His reign in Turkmenistan led to 21 years of relative peace within the country, but was not welcoming of diverse opinions and viewpoints throughout the culture.

Most opponents to his regime left the country over the last two decades as President Niyazov centralized his authority over the nation. His rule over Turkmenistan came after years of service in the Communist Party of the USSR (c.f. [1]).


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August 24, 2005

Turkmen president bans recorded music in public

Turkmen president bans recorded music in public

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Wednesday, August 24, 2005

Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov has banned the playing of recorded music on television, at public events, and both public and private wedding ceremonies. Turkmenistan’s official daily newspaper, Neitralny Turkmenistan, quotes President Niyazov as stating that the ban is intended to “protect true culture, including the musical and singing traditions of the Turkmen people.” The office of the president said recorded music and lip synching has “a negative effect on the development of singing and musical art.” In a cabinet meeting broadcast on national television, Niyazov said “Unfortunately, one can see on television old voiceless singers lip-synching their old songs. Don’t kill talents by using lip synching… Create our new culture.”

President Niyazov has a history of regulating cultural influences in Turkmenistan. He has outlawed long hair or beards and capped teeth, required video monitors in all public places, and banned car radios and certain performing arts like opera and ballet, deeming them “unnecessary.”

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