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July 1, 2008

Wikipedia: Gdańsk

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Old town

Old town

Flag of Gdańsk
Coat of arms of Gdańsk
Coat of arms
Motto: Nec temere, nec timide
(Neither rashness nor timidity)
Gdańsk (Poland)
Coordinates: 54°22′N 18°38′E / 54.367, 18.633
Country Flag of Poland Poland
Voivodeship Pomeranian
County city county
Established 10th century
City rights 1263
– Mayor Paweł Adamowicz
– City 262 km² (101.2 sq mi)
Population (2006)
– City 457,630
– Density 1,746.7/km² (4,523.9/sq mi)
– Metro 1,080,700
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
– Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 80-008 to 80-958
Area code(s) +48 58
Car plates GD

Gdańsk (Polish pronunciation [gdaɲsk] (Image:Ltspkr.png listen); German: Danzig [ˈdant͡sɪç] (Image:Ltspkr.png listen), Kashubian: Gduńsk, Latin: Gedania, Dantiscum) is the city at the center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Poland.[1] It is Poland’s principal seaport as well as the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It is also historically the largest city of the Kashubian region.

The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay (of the Baltic Sea), in a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdynia and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over 800,000.[1] Gdańsk itself has a population of 458,053 (2006), making it the largest city in the Pomerania region of Northern Poland.

Gdańsk is situated at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, whose waterway system waters 60% of the area of Poland and connects Gdańsk to the national capital in Warsaw. This gives the city a unique advantage as the center of Poland’s sea trade. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is also an important industrial center. Historically an important seaport and shipbuilding center, Danzig was a member of the Hanseatic League.

The city was the birthplace of the Solidarity movement which, under the leadership of Gdańsk political activist Lech Wałęsa, played a major role in bringing an end to communist rule across Central Europe. It is also the home and birthplace of Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk, who is of Kashubian origin.



See also: List of European cities with names in different languages

The city’s name is thought to originate from the Gdania river,[2] the original name of the Motława branch on which the city is situated. Gdańsk and Gdania are considered to be derivations from the Gothic name of the area (Gutiskandja),[3] however this has also been questioned.[4] Like many other Central European cities, Gdańsk has had many different names throughout its history.

The name Gdańsk is usually pronounced /gəˈdɑːnsk/, /gəˈdaɪnsk/, or /gəˈdænsk/ in English. The diacritic over the “n” is frequently omitted by non-Poles. In the local Kashubian language it is known as Gduńsk.

The German name is Danzig, as well as in English[5] until the end of World War II. Other former English versions of its name include Dantzig, Dantsic, and Dantzic. The city’s Latin name may be given as either Gedania, Gedanum or Dantiscum; the variety of Latin names reflects the mixed influence of the city’s Polish, German and Kashubian heritage.

Zwantepolc de Danceke, 1228

Zwantepolc de Danceke, 1228

The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert’s demise in 997 A.D. as urbs Gyddanyzc and later was written as Kdanzk (1148), Gdanzc (1188), Danceke[6] (1228), Gdansk (1236), Danzc (1263), Danczk (1311, 1399, 1410, 1414-1438), Danczik (1399, 1410, 1414), Danczig (1414), Gdansk (1454, 1468, 1484), Gdansk (1590), Gdąnsk (1636) and in Latin documents Gedanum or Dantiscum.

Ceremonial names

On special occasions it is also known as The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk (Polish: Królewskie Polskie Miasto Gdańsk, Latin: Regia Civitas Polonica Gedanensis, Kashubian: Królewsczi Polsczi Gard Gduńsk).[7][8][9]

The Kashubians prefer the name: Our Capital City Gdańsk (Nasz Stoleczny Gard Gduńsk) or The Kashubian Capital City Gdańsk (Stoleczny Kaszëbsczi Gard Gduńsk).


The medieval port crane (Krantor), called Żuraw over Motława river

The medieval port crane (Krantor), called Żuraw over Motława river

Monument to King John III Sobieski, formerly placed in Lwów

Monument to King John III Sobieski, formerly placed in Lwów

Main article: History of Gdańsk
See also: History of Pomerania

Foundation and the Middle Ages

According to archaeologists, a stronghold was built at Gdańsk in the 980s by Mieszko I of Poland, after a series of wars against the local tribes. Modern day Poles have come to regard this as the founding of Gdańsk; in 1997 the city celebrated the millennial anniversary of the year 997 when Saint Adalbert of Prague baptized the inhabitants of the settlement on behalf of Boleslaw the Brave of Poland.

Gdańsk soon became the main centre of a splinter duchy known as Pomerelia, meaning the land by the sea. In 1224/25, Germans established Danzig in the area of the earlier fortress. In 1226, the town was granted an autonomy charter by Swantipolk II, similar to that of Lübeck. Danzig gained great importance in the Baltic area as a city of merchants and trade and as a port city. Being a city with its own statute, it was clearly separate from the surrounding – then still Slav – surrounding territory, but it soon became a starting point for the German settlement of the largely fallow Vistula land.

By 1308 the city had become a flourishing trading port with some 10,000 inhabitants when, together with Pomerelia, Danzig was invaded by the Teutonic Order. This led to a series of wars between the Order and the Kingdom of Poland, ending with the Treaty of Kalisz (1343) when the Order acknowledged that it would hold all of Pomerania as an alm from the Polish king. Although it left the legal basis of the Order’s possession of the province in some doubt, the city thrived as a result of increased exports of grain (especially wheat), timber, potas, tar, and other goods of forestry from Poland via the Vistula River trading routes. While under the control of the Teutonic Order, the city and its trade prospered, German migration increased, and the city became a full member of the Hanseatic League in 1361.

A new war broke out in 1409, ending with the Battle of Grunwald (1410), and the city came willingly under the control of the Kingdom of Poland . A year later, with the first First Peace of Thorn, it returned to the Teutonic Order. In 1440, the city participated in the foundation of the Prussian Confederation which led to the Thirteen Years’ War of independence from the Teutonic Order (1454-1466).

This intermittent warfare ended on May 25, 1457, when the city came under the protective sovereignty of the Crown of Poland while maintaining its rights and independence as an autonomous city.[10][11] Gaining free access for the first time to Polish markets, the seaport prospered while simultaneously trading with the other Hanseatic cities. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) and the incorporation of Royal Prussia by the Kingdom of Poland the warfare between the Polish crown and the Teutonic Order ended permanently, and the city continued to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (reconfirmed in 1577). The 16th and 17th centuries were a Golden Age for trade and culture of the city. Beside the German majority, the city was home to a large number of Poles, Jews, and Dutch. In addition, a number of Scotsmen took refuge or immigrated to and received citizenship in the city. During the Protestant Reformation, the German inhabitants adopted Lutheranism.

The city suffered a slow economic decline due to the wars of the 18th century, when it was taken by the Russians after the Siege of Danzig in 1734. Danzig was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793, only to be broken off by Napoleon as as a pseudo-independent free city from 1807-1814. Returned to Prussia after France’s defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, the city became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Danzig within the province of West Prussia from 1815. The city’s longest serving Regierungspräsident was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from 1841, through the revolutions of 1848, until 1863. The city became part of the German Empire in 1871.

Main Town Hall with clock tower at the Long Market street

Main Town Hall with clock tower at the Long Market street

The inter-war years, and World War II

When Poland regained its independence after World War I with access to the sea as promised by the Allies on the basis of Woodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points”, the Poles hoped the city’s harbour would also become part of Poland. However, since a 1919 census determined that the city’s population was 98% German,[12] it was not placed under Polish sovereignty, but, according to the terms of the Versailles Treaty, became the Free City of Danzig, an independent quasi-state under the auspices of the League of Nations with its external affairs largely under Polish control. This led to a large degree of tension between the city and the surrounding Republic of Poland. The Free City had its own constitution, national anthem, parliament (Volkstag), and government (Senat). It issued its own stamps as well as currency.

The majority of the Free City of Danzig’s population favored reincorporation into Germany. In the early 1930s the local Nazi Party capitalized on these pro-German sentiments and in 1933 garnered 38% of vote in the parliament. Thereafter, the Nazis under Gauleiter Albert Forster achieved dominance in the city government, which was still nominally overseen by the League of Nations’ High Commissioner. The Nazis demanded the return of Danzig to Germany along with an exterritorial highway for land-based access to the Third Reich through the area of the Polish Corridor.[13] However, when the German Nazi Government secured Soviet approval for aggression against Poland, a decision was made to launch a full-out offensive regardless of any Polish willingness to negotiate successions.[14] On September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany attacked Poland, triggering the outbreak of World War II.

World War II began in Danzig, with a bombardment of Polish positions at Westerplatte by the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, and the landing of German infantry on the peninsula. Polish defenders at Westerplatte resisted for seven days before running out of ammunition. Meanwhile, after a fierce daylong fight, defenders of Polish Post office were shot dead and buried on the spot in the Danzig quarter of Zaspa. To celebrate surrender of Westerplatte, NSDAP organized a night parade on Sep 7th along Adolf-Hitlerstrasse that was inadvertently attacked by a Polish hydroplane taking off from Hel Peninsula. The city was officially annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia.

“Danzig is German”. Postage stamp issued by Nazi Germany to celebrate the annexation of Danzig by the German Reich after the invasion of Poland.

Most of the Jewish community in Danzig were able to escape from the Nazis shortly before the outbreak of war. Nazi secret police had been observing Polish communities since 1936, compiling information which in 1939 served to prepare lists of Poles to be captured in Operation Tannenberg. On the first day of the war, approximately 1,500 ethnic Poles were arrested, some because of their participation in social and economic life, others because they were activists and members of various Polish organizations. On 2 September 1939, 150 of them were deported to the Stutthof concentration camp some 30 miles from Danzig, and murdered.[15] Many Poles living in Danzig were deported to Stutthof or executed in the Piaśnica forest.

In 1941, the Nazi Regime ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union, eventually causing the fortunes of war to turn against it. As the Soviet Army advanced in 1944, German populations in Central and Eastern Europe took flight, resulting in the beginning of a great population shift. After the final Soviet offensive began in January, 1945, hundreds of thousands of German refugees, many of whom had fled to Danzig on foot from East Prussia (see evacuation of East Prussia), tried to escape through the city’s port in a large-scale evacuation involving hundreds of German cargo and passenger ships. Some of the ships were sunk by the Soviets, including the Wilhelm Gustloff after an evacuation was attempted at neighboring Gdynia. In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed.

The city also endured heavy Allied and Soviet bombardment by air. Those who survived and could not escape encountered the Soviet Army, which captured the city on March 30, 1945 and largely destroyed it.[16] In line with the decisions made by the Allies at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, the city was returned to Poland after 152 years. The remaining German residents of the city who survived the war fled or were expelled to postwar Germany, and the city was repopulated with ethnic Poles, including many from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union who were deported by the Soviets in two major waves from the eastern portion of pre-war Poland.

Contemporary History

Example of the Hanseatic style buildings recreated in the Old Town after the world war.

Example of the Hanseatic style buildings recreated in the Old Town after the world war.

The historic old city of Gdańsk, which had suffered large-scale destruction at the hands of the Soviet Army, was rebuilt during the 1950s and 1960s. Boosted by heavy investment in the development of its port and three major shipyards, Gdańsk became the major shipping and industrial center of the Communist People’s Republic of Poland.

As part of German-Polish reconciliation policies driven by West German Chancellor Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik, German territorial claims on Gdańsk were renounced, and the city’s full incorporation into Poland was recognized in the Treaty of Warsaw in 1970. This was confirmed by a reunited Germany in 1990 and 1991.

In 1970, Gdańsk was the scene of anti-regime demonstrations which led to the downfall of Poland’s communist leader Władysław Gomułka. Ten years later the Gdańsk Shipyard was the birthplace of the Solidarity trade union movement, whose opposition to the Communist regime led to the end of Communist Party rule in 1989, and sparked a series of protests that successfully overturned the Communist regimes of the former Soviet bloc. Solidarity’s leader, Lech Wałęsa, a native of Gdańsk, became President of Poland in 1990. Gdańsk native Donald Tusk became Prime Minister of Poland in 2007.

Today Gdańsk is a major shipping port and tourist destination and has been the setting for a number of major open air concerts, including Pink Floyd’s David Gilmour and Jean Michel Jarre. The Rock band Queen are staging a concert in the Shipyard in October 2008.[17]


Gdansk enjoys a temperate climate, with cold, cloudy, moderately-severe winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from -1.0°C to 17.2°C and rainfall varies from 84.0 mm/month to 210.0 mm/month. In general it is a maritime climate and therefore damp, variable and harsh.

The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times (with temperature reaching as high as 30-35C at least once per year) with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. The average annual hours of sunshine for Gdansk are 1600, similar to other Northern cities. July and August are the hottest months. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp and foggy in November. Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as -15°C.


The industrial sections of the city are dominated by shipbuilding, petrochemical and chemical industries, and food processing. The share of high-tech sectors such as electronics, telecommunications, IT engineering, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals is on the rise. Amber processing is also an important part of the local economy, as the majority of the world’s amber deposits lie along the Baltic coast. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, including Gdańsk, is also a major tourist destination in the summer months, as millions of Poles and European Union citizens flock to the beaches of the Baltic coastline.

Main sights

Neptune statue at the Old Town.

Neptune statue at the Old Town.

The city has many fine buildings from the time of the Hanseatic League. Most tourist attractions are located along or near Ulica Długa (Long Street) and Długi Targ (Long Market), a pedestrian thoroughfare surrounded by buildings reconstructed in historical (primarily 17th century) style and flanked at both ends by elaborate city gates. This part of the city is sometimes referred to as the Royal Road as the former path of processions for visiting kings.

Walking from end to end, sites encountered on or near the Royal Way include:

  • Upland Gate (Brama Wyżynna)
  • Torture House (Katownia)
  • Prison Tower (Wieża więzienna)
  • Golden Gate (Brama Złota)
  • Long Street (Ulica Długa)
    • Uphagen House (Dom Uphagena)
    • Main Town Hall (Ratusz Głównego Miasta)
  • Long Market (Długi Targ)
    • Arthur’s Court (Dwór Artusa)
    • Neptune Fountain (Studnia Neptuna)
    • Golden House (Złota kamienica)
  • Green Gate (Brama Zielona)

Gdańsk has a number of historical churches:

  • St. Bridget
  • St. Catherine
  • St. John
  • St Mary (Bazylika Mariacka), a municipal church built during the 15th century, is the largest brick church in the world.
  • St Nicholas’ Church
  • Church of the Holy Trinity

The museum ship SS Soldek is anchored on the Motława River.

In the 16th century, Gdańsk hosted Shakespearean theatre on foreign tours, and the Danzig Research Society founded in 1743 was one of the first of its kind. Currently, there is a Fundation Theatrum Gedanensis aimed at rebuilding the Shakespeare theatre at its historical site. It is expected that Gdańsk will have a permanent English-language theatre, as at present it is only an annual event.


A typical Gdańsk tram.

A typical Gdańsk tram.

  • Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport – an international airport located in Gdańsk;
  • Port of Gdańsk – a seaport located on the southern coast of Gdańsk Bay within the city;
  • Szybka Kolej Miejska – an urban transportation service of Tricity;
  • Obwodnica Trojmiejska – an expressway that bypasses the cities of Gdynia, Sopot and Gdańsk.

Train transportation provides good connection with all major Polish cities, and with the neighbouring Kashubian Lakes region. The actually constructed A-1 Highway will connect the Port and city of Gdańsk with southern border of the country.

Gdańsk is the starting point of the EuroVelo 9 cycling route which continues southward through Poland, then into the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovenia before ending at the Adriatic Sea in Pula, Croatia.


Main article: Sports in Gdańsk

There are many popular professional sports teams in the Gdańsk and Tricity area. Amateur sports are played by thousands of Gdańsk citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university). One of the most popular sports in Gdańsk is football. The most famous team is Lechia Gdansk. Founded in 1945, they play in the second league. Lechia stadium “MOSIR” is situated on Traugutta Street 29 in Gdańsk, opposite the Medical University of Gdańsk.

Politics and local government

Main article: Politics of Gdańsk

Contemporary Gdańsk is the capital of the province called Pomeranian Voivodeship and is one of the major centres of economic and administrative life in Poland. Many important agencies of the state and local government levels have their main offices here: the Provincial Administration Office, the Provincial Government, the Ministerial Agency of the State Treasury, the Agency for Consumer and Competition Protection, the National Insurance regional office, the Court of Appeal, and the High Administrative Court.

Regional centre

Gdańsk Voivodeship was extended in 1999 to include most of former Słupsk Voivodeship, the western part of Elbląg Voivodeship and Chojnice County from Bydgoszcz Voivodeship to form the new Pomeranian Voivodeship. The area of the region was thus extended from 7,394 km² to 18,293 km² and the population rose from 1,333,800 (1980) to 2,198,000 (2000). By 1998, Tricity constituted an absolute majority of the population; almost half of the inhabitants of the new region live in the centre.

Education and science

Gdańsk University, Law and Administration Department

Gdańsk University, Law and Administration Department

There are 14 universities with a total of 60,436 students, including 10,439 graduates as of 2001.

  • Gdańsk University (Uniwersytet Gdański)
  • Gdańsk University of Technology (Politechnika Gdańska)
  • Medical University (Akademia Medyczna)
  • Academy of Physical Education and Sport of Gdansk (Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu im. Jędrzeja Śniadeckiego)
  • Musical Academy (Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanisława Moniuszki)
  • Arts Academy (Akademia Sztuk Pięknych) [8]
  • Instytut Budownictwa Wodnego PAN
  • Ateneum — Szkoła Wyższa
  • Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna
  • Gdańska Wyższa Szkoła Administracji
  • Wyższa Szkoła Bankowa
  • Wyższa Szkoła Społeczno-Ekonomiczna
  • Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Hotelarstwa w Gdańsku
  • Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania

Scientific and regional organizations

  • Gdańsk Scientific Society
  • Baltic Institute (Instytut Bałtycki), established 1925 in Toruń, since 1946 (?) in Gdańsk
  • TNOiK – Towarzystwo Naukowe Organizacji i Kierowania (Scientific Society for Organization and Management) O/Gdańsk
  • IBNGR – Instytut Badań nad Gospodarką Rynkową (The Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics) [9]

Sister cities

Gdańsk is twinned with:

  • Flag of Germany Bremen, Germany, since 1976
  • Flag of Finland Turku, Finland, since 1987
  • Flag of Spain Barcelona, Spain, since 1990
  • Flag of the United States Cleveland, United States, since 1990
  • Flag of Sweden Kalmar, Sweden, since 1991
  • Flag of Denmark Helsingør, Denmark, since 1992
  • Flag of France Marseille, France, since 1992
  • Flag of France Rouen, France, since 1992
  • Flag of Russia Kaliningrad, Russia, since 1993
  • Flag of the United Kingdom Sefton, United Kingdom, since 1993
  • Flag of Russia St. Petersburg, Russia since 1993
  • Flag of Kazakhstan Astana, Kazakhstan, since 1996
  • Flag of Ukraine Odessa, Ukraine, since 1996
  • Flag of the Netherlands Rotterdam, Netherlands, since 1998
  • Flag of Lithuania Vilnius, Lithuania, since 1998
  • Flag of France Nice, France, since 1999
  • Flag of Poland Bytów, Poland, since 2007


  1. ^ a b World Gazetteer: Poland – largest cities (per geographical entity)
  2. ^ From the history of Gdańsk city name, as explained at Gdansk Guide [1]
  3. ^ Adrian Room, Placenames of the World, 2nd Ed. [2] Quote: “The city has a Gothic name, from Gutisk-andja, “end of the Goths,” as these people’s territory extended to here. The city’s former German name, Danzig, misleadingly suggests an association with the Danes.”
  4. ^ Dennis H. Green, The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century [3] Quote: “…the difficulty with Gdańsk, Gdynia and gudas… in the Polish coastal area centuries before the Goths are known to have occupied this region… casts doubt on the theory of Gothic origin.”
  5. ^ Britannica 11th edition (published in 1911), [4]
  6. ^ Marian Gumowski: Handbuch der polnischen Siegelkunde, 1966 [5]
  7. ^ Gdańsk, in: Kazimierz Rymut, Nazwy Miast Polski, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1987
  8. ^ Hubert Gurnowicz, Gdańsk, in: Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1978
  9. ^ Baedeker’s Northern Germany, Karl Baedeker Publishing, Leipzig 1904
  10. ^ From “Poland. Chronology. [6]
  11. ^ From Danzig – Gdansk until 1920 [7]
  12. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Year Book, 1938,[verification needed]
  13. ^ See Documents Concerning the German Polish Relations and the Outbreak of Hostilities between Great Britain and Germany on September 3, 1939. See also the Soviet archived, Documents Relating to the Eve of the Second World War Volume II: 1938-1939 (New York: International Publishers), 1948.
  14. ^ See Documents Concerning the German Polish Relations and the Outbreak of Hostilities between Great Britain and Germany on September 3, 1939. Hitler’s change of position is well reflected in Goebbel’s personal diary. See also the Soviet archived, Documents Relating to the Eve of the Second World War Volume II: 1938-1939 (New York: International Publishers), 1948.
  15. ^ Museums Stutthof in Sztutowo. Accessed January 31, 2007.
  16. ^ Gdansk, history. Official website. (English)
  17. ^ According to

See also

  • Gdańsk law
  • Gdańsk Pomerania
  • List of people from Gdańsk
  • List of people from Danzig
  • List of mayors of Gdańsk
  • List of mayors of Danzig
  • List of famous people living or working in Gdańsk
  • List of modern neighbourhoods of Gdańsk
  • List of major corporations in Gdańsk
  • List of Dukes of Gdańsk
  • St. Mary’s Church, Gdańsk
  • Space of Freedom – Jean Michel Jarre’s concert (August 26, 2005)
  • 764 Gedania – a minor planet orbiting the Sun

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Gdańsk in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Official website(English)
  • Gdansk Photogallery
  • Virtual Gdańsk (portal) (Polish)


Flag of Gdańsk
Osowa | Oliwa | Żabianka | Jelitkowo | Przymorze | Przymorze Małe | Przymorze Wielkie | VII Dwór | Strzyża | Zaspa | Zaspa-Młyniec | Zaspa-Rozstaje | Brzeźno | Matarnia | Brętowo | Wrzeszcz | Letnica | Nowy Port | Piecki-Migowo | Suchanino | Siedlce | Wzgórze Mickiewicza | Aniołki | Młyniska | Stogi z Przeróbką | Śródmieście | Krakowiec-Górki Zachodnie | Wyspa Sobieszewska | Kokoszki | Chełm i Gdańsk-Południe | Orunia-Św. Wojciech-Lipce | Olszynka | Rudniki
Tourist attractions:
St. Mary’s Church | Westerplatte

Coordinates: 54°21′N, 18°40′E

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