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Wikipedia: Michael Phelps

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Michael Phelps

Michael Phelps in 2004

Personal information
Full name: Michael Fred Phelps
Nickname(s): MP
Nationality: Flag of the United States United States
Stroke(s): Butterfly, Individual Medley, Freestyle, Backstroke
Club: Club Wolverine,
University of Michigan
Date of birth: June 30, 1985 (1985-06-30) (age 23)
Place of birth: Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Height: 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)
Weight: 195 pounds (88 kg)

Michael Fred Phelps (born June 30, 1985 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American swimmer who holds World Records in several events. Phelps won eight medals at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, six of which were gold, which tied the record for medals at a single Olympics, a record that had been held by Alexander Dityatin since 1980.[5] Phelps’ international titles, along with his various world records, have resulted in his being named World Swimmer of the Year in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2007. He has qualified to compete in eight swimming events at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

Contents

Career

Early years

As a young teenager, Phelps trained at the North Baltimore Aquatic Club, under coach Bob Bowman. At the age of 15, Phelps competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, becoming the youngest American male swimmer at an Olympic Games in 68 years. While he did not win a medal, he was fifth in the 200 m Butterfly. Phelps proceeded to make a name for himself in swimming shortly thereafter. Five months after the Sydney Olympics, Phelps broke the world record in the 200 m butterfly to become, at 15 years and 9 months, the youngest man ever to set a swimming world record.[6] He then broke his own record again at the World Championships in Fukuoka, Japan (1:54.58). At the 2002 Summer Nationals in Fort Lauderdale, Phelps also broke the world record for the 400 m individual medley and set American marks in the 100 m butterfly and the 200 m individual medley.

In 2003, Phelps broke his own world record in the 400 m individual medley (4:09.09) and in June, he broke the world record in the 200 m individual medley (1:56.04). Then on July 7, 2004, Phelps broke his own world record again in the 400 m individual medley (4:08.41) during the U.S. trials for the 2004 Summer Olympics.

In 2004, Phelps left North Baltimore Aquatic Club with Bob Bowman to train at the University of Michigan for Club Wolverine.

2004 Summer Olympic Games

See also: Swimming at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Phelps’ dominance has brought comparisons to former swimming great Mark Spitz,[7] who won seven gold medals in the 1972 Summer Olympics, a world record. Phelps tied Mark Spitz’s record of four gold medals won in single person events. Phelps had the chance to break Spitz’s record of 7 total gold medals in the 2004 Athens Olympics by competing in eight swimming events (5 of which were individual events): the 200 m freestyle, the 100 m butterfly, the 200 m butterfly, the 200 m individual medley, the 400 m individual medley, the 4×100 m freestyle relay, 4×200 m freestyle relay, and the 4×100 m medley relay. However, his 4×100 m freestyle relay team only won the bronze medal, and he personally placed for bronze in the 200 m freestyle. Thus, he fell short of that record. However, he did win eight medals in one Olympics, a feat only achieved by Alexander Dityatin, a gymnast, in the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.

Had he won seven golds, he would have been eligible for a US$1 million bonus from his sponsor, Speedo.[8] Phelps does, however, have another chance at this $1 million should he win seven or more golds at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.

On August 14, 2004, he won his first Olympic gold, in the 400 m individual medley, setting another new world record (4:08.26). On August 16 he was beaten by the Australian winner Ian Thorpe and the Dutch Pieter van den Hoogenband in 200 m freestyle final, called the race of the century.[9]

On August 20, in the 100 m butterfly final, Phelps defeated American teammate Ian Crocker (who holds the world record in the event) by just 0.04 seconds. Traditionally, the Olympian who places highest in an individual event will be automatically given the corresponding leg of the 4×100 m medley relay. This gave Phelps an automatic entry into the medley relay but he deferred and Crocker swam instead. The American medley team went on to win the event in world record time, and, since he had raced in a preliminary heat of the medley relay, Phelps was also awarded a gold medal along with the team members that competed in the final.

2004 – 2008

Phelps swims the 400 IM at the 2008 Missouri GP

Phelps swims the 400 IM at the 2008 Missouri GP

Phelps moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan following the 2004 Olympics when his longtime coach at the North Baltimore Athletic Club, Bob Bowman, became head coach of the University of Michigan swimming team. Phelps served as a volunteer assistant coach, but did not swim for the university’s team in NCAA competition because of his loss of amateur status, having accepted endorsement money from his sponsors Speedo, Visa, Omega, and PowerBar.[10] Instead, he trained with and competed for Club Wolverine, a USA Swimming club affiliated with the university, between 2004 and 2008. The Baltimore Sun said in August 2008 that Phelps earns $5 million annually in endorsements.[11]

At the 2007 Worlds, Phelps won 7 gold medals, tying the record, and broke 5 world records. He co-founded the “Swim with the Stars” program, along with Ian Crocker and Lenny Krayzelburg, a program which promotes swimming and conducts camps for swimmers of all ages.

2008 Summer Olympic Games

See also: Swimming at the 2008 Summer Olympics

Phelps will represent the United States at the 2008 Summer Olympics and has qualified to compete in the following events:[11]

Date Event
August 10 400 m individual medley
August 11 4 x 100 m freestyle relay
August 12 200 m freestyle
August 13 4 x 200 m freestyle relay
August 13 200 m butterfly
August 15 200 m individual medley
August 16 100 m butterfly
August 17 4 x 100 m medley relay

Phelps set an Olympic record in the preliminary heats of the men’s 400-meter individual medley.[12]

Personal life

Phelps grew up in the Rodgers Forge neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland, and graduated from Towson High School in 2003.[11] His father, Fred Phelps (no relation to Fred Phelps of Kansas), worked for the Maryland State Police and his mother, Debbie Davisson Phelps, is a middle school principal.[13] The two divorced in 1994.[11] Phelps, whose nickname is “MP,” has two older sisters, Whitney and Hilary.[11][13] Both of them were swimmers as well, with Whitney coming close to making the U.S. Team for the 1996 Summer Olympics before injuries derailed her career.

In his youth, Phelps was diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).[11] He started swimming at age seven, partly because of the influence of his sisters and partly to provide him with an outlet for his restless energy. He blossomed quickly as a swimmer, and by the age of 10 held a national record for his age group. More age group records followed, and Phelps’ rapid improvement culminated in his qualifying for the 2000 Summer Olympics at the age of 15.[14]

In November 2004, Phelps was arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol in Salisbury, Maryland. He pleaded guilty to driving while impaired the following month and was granted probation before judgment and ordered to serve 18 months probation, fined $250, obligated to speak to high schoolers about drinking and driving, and had to attend a Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) meeting. [15][16] Questioned about the incident later that month by Matt Lauer on the Today Show, Phelps said it was an “isolated incident” and that he had “definitely let myself down and my family down … I think I let a lot of people in the country down.”[11]

Between 2004 and 2008, Phelps attended the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, studying sports marketing and management. In May 2008, Phelps said he intends to return to Baltimore following the 2008 Olympics, joining Bob Bowman there when he leaves the University of Michigan, saying, “I’m not going to swim for anybody else. I think we can both help the North Baltimore Athletic Club go further. I’m definitely going to be in Baltimore next year.” The club has announced that Bowman is leaving the University of Michigan to become the club’s CEO.[17]

In a front page illustrated article profiling Phelps on the eve of the 2008 Summer Olympics, The Baltimore Sun described the hometown swimmer as “a solitary man” with a “rigid focus” at the pool prior to a race, but afterwards “a man incredibly invested in the success of the people he cares about”.[11] Bowman told a Sun interviewer, “He’s unbelievably kind-hearted”, recounting Phelps’ interaction with young children after practices.[11]

Major achievements

International events

Year Meet Venue Distance Event Result
2001 World Championships (LC) Fukuoka, Japan 200 m Butterfly 1st (WR)
2002 Pan Pacific Championships Yokohama, Japan 200 m Butterfly 2nd
200 m Individual Medley 1st
400 m Individual Medley 1st
4 x 200 m Freestyle Relay 2nd
4 x 100 m Medley Relay 1st (WR)
2003 World Championships (LC) Barcelona, Spain 100 m Butterfly 2nd
200 m Butterfly 1st (WR)
200 m Individual Medley 1st (WR)
400 m Individual Medley 1st (WR)
4 x 200 m Freestyle Relay 2nd (AR)
4 x 100 m Medley Relay 1st
2004 Summer Olympics Athens, Greece 200 m Freestyle 3rd (AR)
100 m Butterfly 1st (OR)
200 m Butterfly 1st (OR)
200 m Individual Medley 1st (OR)
400 m Individual Medley 1st (WR)
4 x 100 m Medley Relay 1st
4 x 100 m Freestyle Relay 3rd
4 x 200 m Freestyle Relay 1st (AR)
World Championships (SC) Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S. 200 m Freestyle 1st
2005 World Championships (LC) Montreal, Quebec, Canada 200 m Freestyle 1st
100 m Butterfly 2nd
200 m Individual Medley 1st
4 x 100 m Medley Relay 1st
4 x 100 m Freestyle Relay 1st
4 x 200 m Freestyle Relay 1st
2006 Pan Pacific Championships Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 200 m Backstroke 2nd
200 m Butterfly 1st (WR)
200 m Individual Medley 1st (WR)
400 m Individual Medley 1st
4 x 100 m Freestyle Relay 1st (WR)
4 x 200 m Freestyle Relay 1st (AR)
2007 World Championships (LC) Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 4 x 100 m Freestyle Relay 1st
4 x 200 m Freestyle Relay 1st (WR)
200 m Freestyle 1st (WR)
200 m Butterfly 1st (WR)
200 m Individual Medley 1st (WR)
100 m Butterfly 1st
400 m Individual Medley 1st (WR)

LC: long course – 50 m pool; SC: short course – 25 m pool.

U.S. national titles

With 38 national titles as of 2007, Phelps is beginning to approach the record of 48 held by Tracy Caulkins.

Meters Nationals (38+5):

50 m free (1): ’07 SCN
100 m free (4): ’07 WIN, ’05 SPG, ’04 SPG, ’03 SUM
200 m free (7): ’07 SUM (US), ’06 SUM, ’05 SUM, ’05 SPG, ’04 SPG, ’03 SUM (AR), ’03 SPG
400 m free (2): ’05 SPG, ’03 SUM (AR)
100 m back (1): ’07 SUM (US)
200 m back (4): ’07 SUM (US), ’04 SPG, ’03 SUM, ’03 SPG
100 m fly (7): ’07 SUM, ’06 SUM, ’05 SPG, ’04 SPG (US), ’03 SPG, ’02 SUM (AR), ’01 SUM
200 m fly (4): ’06 SUM, ’05 SUM, ’02 SUM (US), ’01 SPG (WR)
200 m IM (6): ’06 SUM, ’05 SPG, ’04 SPG, ’03 SUM (WR), ’02 SUM (AR), ’01 SUM
400 m IM (2): ’06 SUM, ’02 SUM (WR)
4 x 100 m medley (2): ’07 SUM, ’06 SUM
4 x 100 m free (2): ’07 SUM, ’05 SUM
4 x 200 m free (1): ’05 SUM (US)

Yards Nationals (2+1):

100 yd free (1): ’07 SCYN
200 yd free (1): ’07 SCYN
4 x 200 yd free (1): ’07 SCYN (AR)
  • Relays do not count as individual national titles.
  • USA Swimming is currently in the process of moving away from having 2 National Championships per year to only 1. As a result, he has not and may not attend many more Spring Nationals.

Records and Rankings

Currently held records

Record Distance Event Time Location Date
World 200 m (lc) Freestyle 1:43.86 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 27
200 m (lc) Butterfly 1:52.09 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 28
200 m (lc) Individual Medley 1:54.80 Omaha, Nebraska, USA 2008 July 4
400 m (lc) Individual Medley 4:05.25 Omaha, Nebraska, USA 2008 June 29
4 x 100 m (lc) Freestyle Relay 3:12.46 Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 2006 August 19
4 x 200 m (lc) Freestyle Relay 7:03.24 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 30
American 200 m (sc) Freestyle 1:43.78 East Meadow, New York, USA 2006 February 4
200 m (sc) Butterfly 1:52.27 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2003 November 28
200yd Freestyle 1:32.08 Austin, Texas, USA 2005 March 3
200yd Butterfly 1:39.70 Austin, Texas, USA 2006 March 4
400yd Individual Medley 3:36.26 Austin, Texas, USA 2006 March 3
Set in US 200 m (lc) Freestyle 1:44.10 Omaha, Nebraska, USA 2008 July 1
200 m (lc) Backstroke 1:54.65 Indianapolis, Indiana, USA 2007 August 1
200 m (lc) Butterfly 1:52.20 Omaha, Nebraska, USA 2008 July 3
200 m (lc) Individual Medley 1:55.94 College Park, Maryland, USA 2003 August 9
4 x 200 m (lc) Freestyle Relay 7:12.35 Irvine, California, USA 2005 August 5
200 m (sc) Freestyle 1:43.78 East Meadow, New York, USA 2006 February 4
400 m (sc) Individual Medley 4:03.99 East Meadow, New York, USA 2006 February 3
200yd Butterfly 1:39.70 Austin, Texas, USA 2006 March 4
400yd Individual Medley 3:36.26 Austin, Texas, USA 2006 March 3

World records set by Phelps

With 25 world records (22 individual + 3 relay) as of July 4, 2008, Phelps is beginning to approach the record held by Mark Spitz of 33 world records (26 individual + 7 relay). All of the records were set in a long course (50 meter) pool.

No. Distance Event Time Location Date
1 200 m Butterfly 1:54.92 Austin, Texas, USA 2001 March 30
2 200 m Butterfly (2) 1:54.58 Fukuoka, Japan 2001 July 24
3 400 m Individual Medley 4:11.09 Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA 2002 August 15
4 4×100 m Medley Relay[a] 3:33.48 Yokohama, Japan 2002 August 29
5 400 m Individual Medley (2) 4:10.73 Indianapolis, Indiana, USA 2003 April 6
6 200 m Individual Medley 1:57.94 Santa Clara, California, USA 2003 June 29
7 200 m Butterfly (3) 1:53.93 Barcelona, Spain 2003 July 22
8 200 m Individual Medley (2) 1:57.52 Barcelona, Spain 2003 July 24
9 100 m Butterfly 51.47 Barcelona, Spain 2003 July 25
10 200 m Individual Medley (3) 1:56.04 Barcelona, Spain 2003 July 25
11 400 m Individual Medley (3) 4:09.09 Barcelona, Spain 2003 July 27
12 200 m Individual Medley (4) 1:55.94 College Park, Maryland, USA 2003 August 9
13 400 m Individual Medley (4) 4:08.41 Long Beach, California, USA 2004 July 7
14 400 m Individual Medley (5) 4:08.26 Athens, Greece 2004 August 14
15 200 m Butterfly (4) 1:53.80 Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 2006 August 17
16 4×100 m Freestyle Relay[b] 3:12.46 Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 2006 August 19
17 200 m Individual Medley (5) 1:55.84 Victoria, British Columbia, Canada 2006 August 20
18 200 m Butterfly (5) 1:53.71 Columbia, Missouri, USA 2007 February 17
19 200 m Freestyle 1:43.86 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 27
20 200 m Butterfly (6) 1:52.09 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 28
21 200 m Individual Medley (6) 1:54.98 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 29
22 4×200 m Freestyle Relay[c] 7:03.24 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 March 30
23 400 m Individual Medley (6) 4:06.22 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2007 April 1
24 400 m Individual Medley (7) 4:05.25 Omaha, Nebraska, USA 2008 June 29
25 200 m Individual Medley (7) 1:54.80 Omaha, Nebraska, USA 2008 July 4
a  with Aaron Peirsol, Brendan Hansen and Jason Lezak
b  with Neil Walker, Cullen Jones and Jason Lezak
c  with Ryan Lochte, Klete Keller and Peter Vanderkaay

Best Times and All-Time Event Rankings

Event Best Time All-Time American Rank All-Time World Rank Top 25 Swims All-Time
Long Course Meters
100m Freestyle 47.92 #3 #7 #11
200m Freestyle 1:43.86 #1 #1 #1, #3 (1:44.10), #10 (1:44,98), #14 (1:45.20), #16 (1:45.32), #20 (1:45.36r), #23 (1:45.50), #25 (1:45.51r)
400m Freestyle 3:46.73 #5 #22
100m Backstroke 53.01 #3 #3 #5, Tie-#8 (Aaron Peirsol, 53.17), #19 (53.42)
200m Backstroke 1:54.65 #3 #3 #5, #15 (1:55.30), #23 (1:55.84)
100m Butterfly 50.77 #2 #2 #3, #5 (50.89), #7 (51.04), #9/10 (51.10), #11 (51.15), Tie-#13 (Ian Crocker, 51.25), #17 (51.34), #19 (51.39), #23 (51.47)
200m Butterfly 1:52.09 #1 #1 #1, #2 (1:52.20), #3 (1:53.33), #4 (1:53.71), #5 (1:53.80), #7 (1:53.93), #8 (1:54.02), #9 (1:54.04), #11 (1:54.31), #12 (1:54.32), #13 (1:54.35), #19 (1:54.58), #24 (1:54.86)
200m Individual Medley 1:54.80 #1 #1 #1, #2 (1:54.98), #4 (1:55.84), #5 (1:55.94), #6 (1:56.04), #9 (1:56.50), #10 (1:56.68), #11 (1:56.71), #13 (1:56.80), #15 (1:56.93), #17 (1:57.14), #18 (1:57.39), #20 (1:57.44), #21 (1:57.52), #24 (1:57.64)
400m Individual Medley 4:05.25 #1 #1 #1, #3(4:06.22) #5(4:08.26), #6(4:08.41), #7 (4:09.09), #14 (4:10.16), #15 (4:10.47), #16 (4:10.73), #18 (4:11.09), #21 (4:11.30), #22 (4:11.40)
Short Course Yards
100yd Freestyle 41.93 #5 #9
200yd Freestyle 1:32.08 #1 #2 #2, #3 (1:32.13), #6 (1:32.43)
500yd Freestyle 4:10.43 #5 #5 #7
100yd Backstroke 45.50 #7 #8
200yd Backstroke 1:41.55 #21 #23
100yd Butterfly 45.40 #4 #6
200yd Butterfly 1:39.70 #1 #1 #1, #2 (1:41.72), #6 (1:42.10)
200yd Individual Medley 1:41.30 #2 #2 #3, #4 (1:41.32), #9 (1:42.78)
400yd Individual Medley 3:36.26 #1 #1 #1, #9 (3:39.61)

See also

  • World record progression 200 metres freestyle
  • World record progression 100 metres butterfly
  • World record progression 200 metres butterfly
  • World record progression 200 metres medley
  • World record progression 400 metres medley

References

  1. ^ “2004 Olympic Games swimming results”. Retrieved on 2007-07-22.
  2. ^ “Montreal 2005 Results”. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  3. ^ “12th FINA World Championships”. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.
  4. ^ “7th FINA World Championships – 25m Indianapolis 2004”. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  5. ^ Facts & figures
  6. ^ Paul McMullen (2001-05-09). “Phelps marks his time Swimming: Towson High’s Michael Phelps now counts a butterfly world record, as well as his participation in the 2000 Olympics, as his biggest thrills”, The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 2008-01-26. 
  7. ^ Mark Spitz compared with Phelps
  8. ^ $1 million endorsement
  9. ^ Race of the Century
  10. ^ http://www.olympic-usa.org/73_31263.htm United States Olympic Committee – SWIMMING: Matsunichi Signs Global Endorsement Contract with Michael Phelps
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kevin Van Valkenburg (2008-08-03). “Phelps’ voyage”, The Baltimore Sun, pp. 1A, 16A–17A. 
  12. ^ Phelps Sets Olympic Record.
  13. ^ a b “USA Swimming — Michael Phelps”. U.S. Olympic Committee (2008). Retrieved on 2008-06-26.
  14. ^ Paul McMullen, Amazing Pace: The Story of Olympic Champion Michael Phelps from Sydney to Athens to Bejing. New York: Rodale, Inc., 2006.
  15. ^ “Olympic Champ Sentenced For DUI”. CBS News (2004-12-29). Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  16. ^ “Michael Phelps”. Ask Men. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
  17. ^ Kevin Van Valkenburg (2008-05-11). “Phelps returns to attend NBAC fundraiser”. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Michael Phelps
  • Michael Phelps official web site
  • Biography at USA Swimming
  • Michael Phelps at the United States Olympic Committee.
  • Stroke by Stroke: How Michael Phelps turbocharged his repertoire (photos).
  • [1] Michael Phelps breaks his own 400m IM record.
  • Michael Phelps at the Internet Movie Database
  • Videos & Results on SwimPassion.net
  • “Michael Phelps”, n°3 on Time’s list of “100 Olympic Athletes To Watch”
Records
Preceded by
Flag of the United States Tom Malchow
Men’s 200 metre butterfly
world record holder (long course)

March 30, 2001 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Flag of the United States Tom Dolan
Men’s 400 metre individual medley
world record holder (long course)

August 15, 2002 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Flag of Finland Jani Sievinen
Men’s 200 metre individual medley
world record holder (long course)

June 29, 2003 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Preceded by
Flag of Ukraine Andriy Serdinov
Men’s 100 metre butterfly
world record holder (long course)

July 25, 2003 – July 26, 2003
Succeeded by
Flag of the United States Ian Crocker
Preceded by
Flag of Australia Ian Thorpe
Men’s 200 metre freestyle
world record holder (long course)

March 27, 2007 – present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Awards
Preceded by
Ian Thorpe
World Swimmer of the Year
2003-2004
Succeeded by
Grant Hackett
Preceded by
Grant Hackett
World Swimmer of the Year
2006-2007
Succeeded by
incumbent

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