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December 15, 2008

Wikipedia: Politics of Thailand

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This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of

  • King
    • Bhumibol Adulyadej
  • Government
  • Prime Minister (List)
    • Chaovarat Chanweerakul
    • Cabinet of Thailand (List)
  • National Assembly
    • Senate
    • House of Representatives
  • Political parties
  • Elections (Commission)
    • Senate: 2008
    • House of Representatives: 2007
  • Constitutions
    • Current Constitution (referendum)
  • Constitutional Court
  • Provinces and districts
  • Human rights
  • South Thailand insurgency
  • Foreign relations
  • Foreign aid
  • Coups
  • Political Crisis of 2008

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The politics of Thailand currently take place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is head of state. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches.

Thailand has been ruled by kings since the thirteenth century. In 1932, the country officially became a constitutional monarchy, though in practice, the government was dominated by the military and the elite bureaucracy. The country’s current constitution was promulgated in 2007.

The King of Thailand has little direct power under the constitution but is a symbol of national identity and unity. King Bhumibol — who has been on the throne since 1946 — commands enormous popular respect and moral authority, which he has used on occasion to resolve political crises that have threatened national stability.

On 23 December 2007, a general election was held following a recent military coup by the Council for National Security on 19 September 2006. The People’s Power Party, led by Somchai Wongsawat, won the majority of seats in the parliament. A civilian coalition government was formed on 28 January 2008 with five other minor parties leaving the Democrats, led by Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, as the only opposition party.


Thailand and Democracy after 1932

Thailand had been a kingdom under absolute monarchy for over seven centuries before 1932.

At the beginning of the era of colonialism, the country was forced and rushed to evolve by the western imperialism and the republic parliamentary revolutionary changes that started with the French revolution and the fall of the Russian tsar. Though guided under several kings’ endeavour, Thailand did not have enough time to get the people educated and prepared for western political, industrial and economic changes.

Since the conversion to the constitutional monarchy in 1932, Thailand has been a democracy only in name or only in the parliamentary format. Most of the time, the country has been ruled by a military government or elite politicians, not by the people, for the people or belonging to the people. Political freedom, freedom of speech and basic human rights were strongly compromised in the first three quarters of the twentieth century.

Student-lead uprisings in October 1973 lead to the new vision of liberating the country from military government. The media received more freedom to criticize politicians and governments, while personal rights became more respected. However, right-wing military and conservative politicians like Samak Sundaravej reversed the reform with a massacre.

At the end of the Indochina War, investments from foreign businesses helped alleviate poor infrastructure and social problems. Middle class people constituted only ten per cent of the sixty million people; they enjoyed the wealth and the increasing freedom, leaving the majority poor in the rural areas and slums. The society has become more materialistic.

Corruption and bribery in all sectors have been on the rise[citation needed]. Most politicians got elected because of vote-buying and return their investments by selling themselves to pass biased resolutions or corrupt budget bills. To win an election, an MP would pay around five hundred baht (10-20 USD) per person, totaling 10 to 30 million baht for a single election.

The system of rule fluctuated between unstable civilian governments and interludes of military takeover. During democratic periods, middle-class people in the cities ignored the poor in the rural areas. The media accepted bribes. Corruption among bureaucrats and politicians have been well accommodated in practices of businesses. The military would take over as a measure of ultima ratio.

Every time a coup was staged, some scapegoats or excuses were always made up for the justification of the coup. Eventually, the following junta government would have to give the people their political rights back. As a result, there have been 18 coups and resultant 18 constitutions in the history of Thai politics.

The Black May, in 1992, uprising lead to more reform through the promulgation of the 1997 constitution, “The People’s Constitution” aiming at check and balance of powers between strengthened government and separately elected senators and anti-corruption institutes. Administrative courts, constitutional courts and election-control committee were designed to join the check and balance of politics.

The 2007 constitution, following Thaksin’s ouster, was particularly designed to be more tighter in control of corruptions and conflicts of interests of politicians while decreasing the authority of the government.

Government of Thailand

Main article: Government of Thailand

Three major independent authorities in balance of power according to the constitution are executive, legislative, and judicial.

The King has little direct power under the constitution but is a symbol of national identity and unity. The present monarch has a great deal of popular respect and moral authority, which has been used to resolve political crises.

The head of government is the Prime Minister. Under the present constitution, the Prime Minister must be a Member of Parliament. Cabinet members do not have to be Members of Parliament. The legislature could hold a vote of no-confidence against the Premier and members of his Cabinet if it had sufficient votes.

Foreign relations of Thailand

Main article: Foreign relations of Thailand

Thailand’s foreign policy includes support for ASEAN in the interest of regional stability and emphasis on a close and longstanding security relationship with the United States.

Thailand participates fully in international and regional organizations. It has developed increasingly close ties with other ASEAN members—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, and Vietnam—whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings. Regional cooperation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In 2003, Thailand served as APEC host. Supachai Panitchpakdi, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, currently serves as Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 2005 Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.

Political parties and elections

discuss –
Summary of the 23 December 2007 House of Representatives of Thailand Thai general election results
Party Constituency Proportional TOTAL
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
People’s Power Party 26,293,456 36.63 199 14,071,799 39.60 34 233
Democrat Party 21,745,696 30.30 132 14,084,265 39.63 33 165
Thai Nation Party 6,363,475 8.87 33 1,545,282 4.35 4 37
For the Motherland 6,599,422 9.19 17 1,981,021 5.57 7 24
Thais United National Development Party 3,395,197 4.73 8 948,544 2.67 1 9
Neutral Democratic Party 3,844,673 5.36 7 528,464 1.49 0 7
Royalist People’s Party 1,632,795 2.27 4 750,158 2.11 1 5
Others 1,897,953 2.64 1,626,234 4.58 0
Valid votes 71,772,667* 100 400 35,535,767 100 80 480
No Votes   906,216 2.32
Invalid Votes 2,539,429 6.51
Total Turnout 38,981,412 85.38
Source: The Nation

* As constituencies elect between one and three MPs, some people have two or three votes.

Recent political history

Transition to Democracy after 1932

Following the 1932 revolution which imposed constitutional limits on the monarchy, Thai politics were dominated for a half century by a military and bureaucratic elite, in collaboration with a dozen or so oligarchs commonly known as persons of influence. Changes of government were effected primarily by means of a long series of mostly bloodless coups.

Beginning with a brief experiment in democracy during the mid-1970s, civilian democratic political institutions slowly gained greater authority, culminating in 1988 when Chatichai Choonhavan — leader of the Chart Thai Party (Thai Nation Party) — assumed office as the country’s first democratically elected prime minister in more than a decade. Three years later, yet another bloodless coup ended his term.

Shortly afterward, the royally appointed Anand Panyarachun, a businessman and former diplomat, to head a largely civilian interim government and promised to hold elections in the near future. However, following inconclusive elections, former army commander Suchinda Kraprayoon was appointed prime minister. Thais reacted to the appointment by demanding an end to military influence in government. Demonstrations were violently suppressed by the military; in May 1992, according to eyewitness reports of action near the democracy monument in Bangkok, soldiers may have killed seven hundred and fifty protesters after only two days of protests.

Domestic and international reaction to the violence forced Suchinda to resign, and the nation once again turned to Anand Panyarachun, who was appointed interim prime minister until new elections in September 1992. In those elections, the political parties that had opposed the military in May 1992 won by a narrow majority, and Chuan Leekpai, a leader of the Democrat Party, became prime minister at the head of a five-party coalition. Following the defection of a coalition partner, Chuan dissolved Parliament in May 1995, and the Chart Thai Party won the largest number of parliamentary seats in the subsequent election. Party leader Banharn Silpa-archa became Prime Minister but held the office only little more than a year. Following elections held in November 1996, Chavalit Youngchaiyudh formed a coalition government and became Prime Minister. The onset of the Asian financial crisis caused a loss of confidence in the Chavalit government and forced him to hand over power to Chuan Leekpai in November 1997. Chuan formed a coalition government based on the themes of economic crisis management and institution of political reforms mandated by Thailand’s 1997 constitution. It collapsed just days before its term was scheduled to end.

2001 – 2006, the Tenure of Thaksin Shinawatra

See also: Thailand political crisis 2005-2006

In the January 2001 elections, telecommunications multimillionaire Thaksin Shinawatra and his Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party won an overwhelming victory on a populist platform of economic growth and development.

Thaksin also marginally survived (8:7) a guilty verdict in a constitutional court where he was charged by the Board of Anti-Corruption because of hiding hundreds-of-million-baht-worth of shares with several of his employees. A decade later, a supreme court ruling in another case accept a possibility of bribery in that constitutional case.

After absorbing several smaller parties, TRT gained an absolute majority in the lower house of the Parliament, controlling 296 of 500 seats. In a cabinet reshuffle of October 2002, the Thaksin administration further put its stamp on the government. A package of bureaucratic reform legislation created six new ministries in an effort to streamline the bureaucratic process and increase efficiency and accountability.

The general election held on 6 February, 2005 resulted in another landslide victory for Thaksin and TRT, which controlled 374 seats in Parliament’s lower house. The popularity of Thaksin’s populist policies in rural areas aided him.

Despite the winning majority, Thaksin became strongly questioned on selling telecommunication shares to Temasek, a Singapore investor for about 70,000 million baht without paying any taxes. More of complex and high-level corruptions and conspiracies were discovered and exposed by the stood-up well-articulated Sonthi Limthongkul, the manager media group owner, who can join the middle class in the capital and the cities through the only small satellite and internet media channel, ASTV.

Thaksin refused to publicly answer PAD’s questions. Because of failure to clear himself in the alleged corruptions, Thaksin’s regime fell apart during public protests led by the People’s Alliance for Democracy which led to widespread calls for his resignation and impeachment.

The People’s Alliance for Democracy, a large group of middle class and coalition of anti-Thaksin protesters, led by Sonthi Limthongkul, gathered in Bangkok, demanded Thaksin to resign from the Prime Minister position so that the King could directly appoint someone else. Thaksin refused and protests continued for weeks.

Thaksin dissolved parliament on 24 February 2006 and called a snap election for 2 April 2006. The election was boycotted by the opposition parties, leading to unopposed TRT candidates for 38 seats failing to get the necessary quorum of 20% of eligible votes. As the Thai constitution required all seats be filled from the beginning of parliament, this paradox produced a constitutional crisis. After floating several suggestions, on 4 April 2006, Thaksin announced that he would step down as prime minister as soon as parliament had selected a successor.

In a televised speech to senior judges, King Bhumibol requested them to execute their duty justly. When criminal charges and administrative cases were fired upon the Election committee, the courts voided the election results, jailed them on abuse of power, and ordered a new round of elections for 15 October 2006. Thaksin continued to work as caretaker prime minister.

2006 coup

Main article: 2006 Thailand coup d’état

Reacting to the coup, poor people in the rural areas were paid and motivated to gather to form a big mob (DAAD) in Bangkok. During Thaksin’s departure to New York City for a speech at UN Headquarters, there was a conspiracy to make up a violent clash to brutally end the month-long PAD protest. Just in time to prevent the alleged clash, the military seized power on 19 September, 2006.

The Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy (CDRM) led by General Sonthi Boonyaratglin was formed. Political activities were banned by the junta after the coup on 19 September 2006. The 1997 Constitution was abrogated, although most of the institutions of government remained intact. A new constitution was drafted and promulgated in late 2007.

One month after the coup, an interim civilian government was formed, including an appointed house of representatives from a variety of professions and an appointed constitutional court. Freedom of speech was restored.

Between 2006 and 2007, organized underground terrorist activities in rural areas of the north and the northeast of Thailand burnt numerous schools. Bombs planted in ten locations in Bangkok killed and injured several people on the New Years eve of 2006.

A national referendum for the 2007 constitution was called by the military and the 2007 constitution was accepted by the majority of the voters. The junta promised a democratic general election which was finally held on 23 December 2007, sixteen months after the coup.

The constitutional court unanimously dissolved the populist Thai Rak Thai party following a punishment according to the 1997 constitution, banning 111 TRT members from politics for five years.

The military drafted a controversial new constitution following allegation of Thaksin’s corruption and abuse of power was particularly designed to be more tighter in control of corruptions and conflicts of interests of politicians while decreasing the previously strengthened authority of the government. A national referendum accepted the 2007 constitution with significant disapproval in the Thaksin’s stronghold, the north and northeast.

On 23 December 2007 national parliamentary election was held, based on the new constitution, and People Power Party (Thai Rak Thai’s and Thaksin’s proxy party), led by former Bangkok governor Samak Sundaravej, began taking the reins of government. Thailand’s new Parliament convened on January 21, 2008.

The People Power Party (PPP) which is Thaksin’s proxy party, won the general election by a solid margin after five minor parties joined it to form a coalition government.

A complaint was filed against PPP in the Thai Supreme Court, charging PPP of being the TRT nominee party. Moreover, in 2008, one of its leading members was charged with electoral fraud. The Election Committee also proposed that the PPP should be dissolved due to the violation of the constitution.

2008 political crisis

Main article: 2008 Thai political crisis

In 2008, Thailand has seen increasing political turmoil, with the PPP government facing pressure to step down amid mounting civil disobedience and unrest lead by the PAD. The conflict centres on the nature of the political system. The PPP support the democratic electoral system, whereas the PAD want its replacement with a system in which some representatives are chosen by certain professions and social groups. The anti-government protesters are mostly better educated, more affluent, urban Thais demanding that the country move away from a Western-style electoral system, which they say Thaksin exploited to buy votes. They instead favor a system in which some representatives are chosen by certain professions and social groups. They are vastly outnumbered by Thaksin’s supporters in the rural majority, who delivered his party two resounding election victories. Their loyalty was sealed by generous social and economic welfare programs for previously neglected provincial areas. The anti-government forces are well organized, and have the behind-the-scenes support of elements of the military and parties close the royal palace, the country’s most influential institution.[1]

Samak Sundaravej was elected Prime Minister of the first government under the 2007 constitution.[2]

Samak Sundaravej, who is an articulate politician, accepted being the “replacement” of fugitive Mr. Thaksin Shinawatra.. In 1973, he ran a prominent month-long propaganda, accusing democratic students’ movements of being communist rebellions, traitors and spies. The event ended in a massacre of hundreds of students at Thammasat University on October 14, 1973, and a further military coup was conducted, giving him the interior minister position in the junta.

In his term as Prime Minister, PM Samak has had daily national state television programmes for his own political messages which are not well accepted by PAD. NBT, the National Broadcasting Television, the state-owned media enterprise, has been openly used to counter the PAD’s message, which emphasises the overturning of the current democratic system.

Former PM Thaksin had welcomed the offers to come back to Thailand in February 2008 to face corruption charges and to get a close control of the PPP party, successor of his Thai Rak Thai Party.

The opposition forced a no-confidence vote against an amendment of the Constitution to launder Thaksin.[3] The failure to address dramatically rising food and energy prices, and a temple dispute with Cambodia have damaged the coalition government’s reputation.[4]

Street protests led by the PAD, the major opposition movement, began in late May after the ruling party agreed to amend the constitution. Their main objective has been to block the amendment of constitution which has also been one primary way of Thaksin to launder himself and to save the PPP from dissolution after one of its leaders was charged with electoral fraud.

Another of PAD’s objectives is to back up the courts and the justice system to justly carry out the judging of Thaksin’s cases. While PM Samak has been successful to get the police and civil servants under control, various courts remain independent and have issued several verdicts.

The constitution court judged that PPP’s second-in-command head Yongyuth Tiyapairat, bought votes which would subject the party to resolve soon. Whereas constitution court and administrative court both ruled that his government seriously violated the constitution and might have affected the national sovereignty in negotiating the sovereignty of the Preah Vihear Temple with Cambodia. The case brought a termination of his first foreign minister, Nopadon Patama. Several other ministers found wrongfully informing the Anticorruption Board or Election Governing Board of important info, were discharged when got caught.

Thaksin and Pojaman’s three lawyers got caught red-handed attempting to bribe supreme court justices. They were sentenced to jail. That was an ominous sign for Thaksin. Later a criminal court returned a verdict against Pojaman, of tax evasion, to be jailed for three years. Days later, Thaksin and Pojaman jumped bails and issued a statement from London to announce through Thai TVs his decision to seek political asylum in the UK in an attempt to avoid what he called “biased” treatment under Thailand’s current judicial system.[5]

Thaksin and his family fled to Great Britain on August 11,2008, to apply for political asylum[6] after his wife was convicted of tax evasion.[7]

PM Samak Sundaravej, through the majority in the house of parliament, was able to complete budget bills for megaprojects. The deals cost so much that the King of Thailand spoke out to protect and to thank the head of the national bank of Thailand (under threats from the government) that the country was on the brink of disaster because of too high and careless expenditures.

PM Samak Sundaravej said “I will never resign in response to these threats. I will not dissolve the House. I will meet the King today to report what’s going on”. He met with King Bhumibol Adulyadej at the Hua Hin palace.[8]

Since August 26, 2008, 30’000 protesters, led by the People’s Alliance for Democracy, occupied Sundaravej’s Government House compound in central Bangkok, forcing him and his advisers to work at Don Muang International Airport, Bangkok’s old international airport. Thai riot police entered the occupied compound and delivered a court order for the eviction of PAD protesters.[9] Chamlong Srimuang, a leader of the PAD, ordered 45 PAD guards to break into the main government building on Saturday.[10] 3 regional airports were closed for a short period and 35 trains between Bangkok and the provinces were canceled. Protesters raided the Phuket International Airport tarmac on the resort island of Phuket Province resulting to 118 flights canceled or diverted, affecting 15,000 passengers.[11]

Protesters also blocked the entrances of the airports in Krabi and Hat Yai (which were later re-opened). Police issued arrest warrants for Sondhi Limthongkul and the 8 other PAD leaders on charges of insurrection, conspiracy, unlawful assembly and refusing orders to disperse.[12] Meanwhile, General Anupong Paochinda stated: “The army will not stage a coup. The political crisis should be resolved by political means.” Samak and the ruling coalition called for an urgent parliamentary debate and session for August 31.[13][14]

PM Samak Sundaravej tried using hands of laws through civil charges, criminal charges and police force with violence to remove the PAD protesters from the government office on August 29.[15][16] However, the PAD managed to get temporary reliefs from courts enabling them to legally continue the siege of the government office.

One person and forty people wounded fell victim to a clash, which occurred when the DAAD (NohPohKoh) protesters, supported by Thaksin and the PPP party moved toward PAD at about 3am of September 2 without adequate police intervention.[17]

By the second of half of September 2008, PM Samak Sundaravej was judged by several courts for his past actions. An appeal court verdict upon a several-years-ago criminal charge of slander could jail him. A constitutional court will return verdict upon a conflict of interest of him being a private employee while holding a PM position. The anti-corruption board may fire a charge of abuse of power in Preah Vihear case to Constitutional court. These instantaneously terminated PM Samak’s political role. While fugitive ex-PM Thaksin and Pojaman would also face verdicts from supreme courts.[18]

People Power Party’s deputy spokesman Kuthep Suthin Klangsang, on September 12, 2008, announced: “Samak has accepted his nomination for prime minister. Samak said he is confident that parliament will find him fit for office, and that he is happy to accept the post. A majority of party members voted Thursday to reappoint Samak. Samak is the leader of our party so he is the best choice.” Despite objections from its five coalition partners, the PPP, in an urgent meeting, unanimously decided to renominate Samak Sundaravej. 5 coalition parties, namely Chart Thai, Matchima Thipataya, Pracharaj, Puea Pandin and Ruam Jai Thai Chart Pattana, unanimously agreed to support the People Power party (PPP) to set up the new government and vote for the person who should be nominated as the new prime minister. Chart Thai deputy leader Somsak Prissananantakul and Ruam Jai Thai Chart Pattana leader Chettha Thanajaro said the next prime minister was nominated. Caretaker prime minister Somchai Wongsawat said PPP secretary-general Surapong Suebwonglee will notify the 5 parties who the PPP nominated, to take office again.[19][20][21] Some lawmakers, however, said they will propose an alternate candidate. Meanwhile, Thailand’s army chief General Anupong Paochinda said he backed the creation of a national unity government that would include all the country’s parties, and he also asked for the lifting of a state of emergency that Samak imposed on September 2.[22]

Embattled Samak Sundaravej abandoned his bid to regain his Thailand Prime Minister post, and he also resigned the People’s Power Party (PPP) leadership.[23][24] Meanwhile, PPP’s chief party spokesman Kudeb Saikrachang and Kan Thiankaew announced on September 13 that caretaker prime minister Somchai Wongsawat, caretaker justice minister Sompong Amornwiwat and PPP Secretary-General Surapong Suebwonglee were PPP’s candidates for premiership post.[25] However, Suriyasai Katasila of People’s Alliance for Democracy (a group of royalist businessmen, academics and activists), vowed to continue its occupation of Government House if a PPP candidate would be nominated: “We would accept anyone as prime minister, as long as he is not from the People’s Power Party.”[26]

On September 14 the state of emergency was lifted.[27][28] The ruling People Power Party, on September 15, 2008, named Somchai Wongsawat, candidate for prime minister to succeed Samak Sundaravej.[29] The PPP will endorsed Somchai, and his nomination will be set for a parliamentary vote on Wednesday. Meanwhile the Supreme Court ruled on Wednesday in a corruption case against Thaksin and his wife, to be promulgated after the parliament vote for the new prime minister.[30][31]

On October 4, 2008, Chamlong Srimuang and rally organiser, Chaiwat Sinsuwongse of the People’s Alliance for Democracy, were detained by the Thai police led by Col. Sarathon Pradit, by virtue of August 27 arrest warrant for insurrection, conspiracy, illegal assembly and refusing orders to disperse (treason) against him and 8 other protest leaders. At the Government House, Sondhi Limthongkul, however, stated demonstrations would continue: “I am warning you, the government and police, that you are putting fuel on the fire. Once you arrest me, thousands of people will tear you apart.”[32] Srimuang’s wife, Ying Siriluck visited him at the Border Patrol Police Region 1, Pathum Thani.[33][34] Other PAD members still wanted by police include Sondhi, activist MP Somkiat Pongpaibul and PAD leaders Somsak Kosaisuk and Pibhop Dhongchai.[35]

On October 7, 20008, Deputy Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh resigned and admitted partial responsibility for violence due to police tear gas clearance of the blockade of the parliament, causing injuries to 116 protesters, 21, seriously injured. His resignation letter stated: “Since this action did not achieve what I planned, I want to show my responsibility for this operation.”[36][37][38] But after dispersal, 5’000 demonstrators returned and blocked all 4 entries to the parliament building.[39]

The protesters attempted to hold 320 MPs and senators as hostages inside the Parliament building, cutting off the power supply, and forcing Somchai Wongsawat to escape by jumping a back fence after his policy address. But other trapped MPs failed to leave and flee from the mob. The siege on the area beside the near prime minister’s office forced the government to transfer its activities to Don Muang International Airport, Bangkok’s former international airport.[40][41]

On November 26, 2008, the Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) issued a statement saying that the current crisis is a watershed moment for democracy and rule of law in Thailand. It contains harsh critique of PAD and the criminal justice system of Thailand. This critique should not be seen as one-sided as AHRC have a history of also being critical of the current goverment (per nov 2008), the Thai Supreme Court, the earlier military junta and the former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.

The 2008 Cambodian-Thai stand-off between Cambodia and Thailand began in June 2008 as the latest round of a century-long dispute involving the area surrouding the 11th-century Preah Vihear Temple, located between the Kantharalak district (amphoe) in the Sisaket province of Northeastern Thailand and the Choam Khsant district in the Preah Vihear province of northern Cambodia. Thailand claims that demarcation has not yet been completed for the external parts of the area judged by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 1962.[1] The dispute has now extended westwards to the Ta Moan Thom complex between the Thai Surin province and the Cambodian Oddar Meancheay province. Furthermore, historians and scholars are expecting that this stand-off will be extended further to the west to the 11th-century Sdok Kok Thom Temple, currently located in the boundary of the Aranyaprathet district in the Sa Kaeo province of eastern Thailand.


  1. ^ Protesters shut Thailand’s international airport
  2. ^ Thaksin Ally Elected as PM
  3. ^ Thai Protestors Defy PM’s Warning
  4. ^ Embattled PM Survives Vote 28 June 2008
  5. ^
  6. ^ Former Thai PM Fled to the UK 11 August 2008
  7. ^ Ex-Thai PM’s wife guilty of fraud 31 July 2008
  8. ^, Thai PM Samak refuses to resign
  9. ^, Thai minister to stay despite protests
  10. ^, Thai protesters break into government office as PM heads to consult king
  11. ^, “I will never resign” says besieged Thai PM
  12. ^, Thai Protest of Premier Stops Trains and Planes
  13. ^, Pressure mounts on Thailand’s PM
  14. ^, Thai Party Calls Urgent Session as Protests Spread
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Coalition parties to hold meeting this evening
  20. ^, Thai ruling party re-nominates leader as PM
  21. ^ news.xinhuanet, Party spokesman: Samak accepts PM nomination
  22. ^, Thai ruling party nominates Samak for PM
  23. ^, Samak pulls out of Thai PM vote
  24. ^, Ousted Premier Ends Attempt to Get Job Back
  25. ^, Somchai, Sompong are candidates for PM
  26. ^, Thai ruling coalition begins search for new PM
  27. ^, Bangkok state of emergency lifted
  28. ^, Bangkok state of emergency lifted
  29. ^, Thai party names nominee for PM
  30. ^, Thai ruling party picks Thaksin in-law for PM
  31. ^, Thai ruling party leaders back Somchai for PM
  32. ^, Police Arrest Leader of Thai Protests
  33. ^, Thai Police Arrest Another Leader Of Protest as Crackdown Continues
  34. ^, Wife of Chamlong visits him after arrest
  35. ^, Thai police arrest second anti-govt protest leader
  36. ^, 6-Thai deputy PM quits after Bangkok clashes
  37. ^, Thai deputy prime minister resigns
  38. ^, Thai deputy prime minister resigns
  39. ^, Bangkok protesters hurt in anti-government clashes
  40. ^, Thai Protesters Trap Legislators
  41. ^, Thai PM jumps fence to flee protesters
Life in
edit box

See also

  • Thailand
  • History of Thailand
  • Media in Thailand
  • Constitution of Thailand

External links

  • Thailand Calls State of Emergency, BBC News, accessed 2006-09-19.
  • Live Blog
  • Blog
  • Asian Human Rights Commission – Thailand homepage
  • Rule of Lords Weekly column on human rights & the rule of law in Thailand and Burma
  • Southern Thailand insurgency news Page archiving daily news about the violence in southern Thailand
  • Extrajudicial Killings
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