|Province of Pangasinan|
Provincial seal of Pangasinan
Map of the Philippines with Pangasinan highlighted
|Region||Ilocos Region (Region I, Pangasinan Rihiyon na Sagor na Baybay na Luzon)|
|– Highly urbanized cities||0|
|– Component cities||4|
|– Congressional districts||6|
|– Total (2007)||2,645,395|
|– Density||453 /km2 (1,173 /sq mi) (8th highest)|
|– Total||5,368.2 km2 (2,073 sq mi)|
|Spoken languages||Pangasinan, Ilocano, Bolinao, Tagalog, English|
|Governor||Amado Espino Jr. (Kampi)|
Pangasinan is one of the provinces of the Republic of the Philippines. The provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the west central area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf. The total land area of Pangasinan is 5,368.82 square kilometers. The total population of Pangasinan is 2,434,086 as of 2000, and projected to be 3,039,500 in 2010. (National Statistics Office, 2000 Census).  The Pangasinan language is the primary language in Pangasinan. The estimated population of the indigenous speakers of the Pangasinan language in the province of Pangasinan is 1.5 million.
The name Pangasinan means “land of salt” or “place of salt-making”; it is derived from asin, the word for “salt” in the Pangasinan language. The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines
An ancient kingdom called Luyag na Kaboloan existed in Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began on the 15th century. Princess Urduja, a legendary woman warrior, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century. The maritime trade network that once flourished in ancient Southeast Asia connected Pangasinan with other peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Pacific.
Pangasinan is famous for the Hundred Islands National Park. This is a marine park located off the coast of Alaminos City in the Lingayen Gulf and is composed of some 123 islands, most of which are quite small and uninhabited.
During the summer, several feasts and festivals are celebrated in Pangasinan, including the Fiestay Dayat (Sea Feast) or Bagat ed Dayat (Sea Feast), the Bangus (Milkfish) Festival, and the Mangga tan Kawayan (Mango and Bamboo) festivals.
Pangasinan is noted as the birthplace of President Fidel V. Ramos, and Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr. The mother of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was from Binalonan, Pangasinan. The father of the late actor and former presidential candidate Fernando Poe Jr. was from San Carlos City, Pangasinan. The maternal great-grandfather of Jose Rizal, a Philippine national hero, was a Pangasinan named Manuel Facundo de Quintos who was a lawyer and the gobernadorcillo of Lingayen in the 1850s.
The 1200 megawatt Sual Coal-Fired Power Plant, and the 345 megawatt San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam are located in Pangasinan. Pangasinan has extensive areas devoted to salt making and aquaculture along the coasts of Lingayen Gulf and South China Sea. Pangasinan is a major producer of rice, mangoes, and bamboo crafts.
Pangasinan occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of Luzon, known as the rice granary of the Philippines. Pangasinan has been described as a gateway to northern Luzon and as the heartland of the Philippines.
The province is 170 kilometers north of Manila, 50 kilometers south of Baguio City, 115 kilometers north of Subic International Airport and Seaport, and 80 kilometers north of Clark International Airport.
Southeast Asian Maritime Trade Network
The Pangasinan people, like most of the people in the Malay Archipelago, are descended from the Austronesian-speakers who settled in Southeast Asia since prehistoric times. The Pangasinan language is one of many languages that belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family.
The ancient Malayo-Polynesian-speakers were expert navigators who had sailing ships capable of crossing the distant seas. The ancient Malagasy sailed from the Malay archipelago to Madagascar, an island across the Indian Ocean, and probably reached Africa. The ancient Polynesians navigated the distant Pacific islands as far away as Hawaii and Easter Island, and probably also reached America. At least several hundred years before the arrival of Europeans, Macassans, from Makassar in Sulawesi, Indonesia, sailing with their prau, established settlements in the north coast of Australia, which they called Marege.
A vast maritime trade network connecting the distant Malayo-Polynesian settlements from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean existed in ancient times. The Pangasinan people are one of the heirs of the ancient Malayo-Polynesian civilization.
Pangasinan was founded by Malayo-Polynesian settlers in ancient times who established settlements along the Agno River. Archaeological evidence and early Chinese and Indian records show that the inhabitants of Pangasinan traded with India, China and Japan as early as the 8th century A.D.
Princess Urduja and Luyag na Caboloan
The Srivijaya and Majapahit empires arose in Indonesia and their influence extended to much of the Malay Archipelago. Pangasinan probably maintained ties with the other peoples of the Malay Archipelago through the vast maritime trade network that once flourished in ancient Southeast Asia. An ancient kingdom called Luyag na Kaboloan once existed in Pangasinan. Luyag na Kaboloan was located in the Agno River valley and the Pangasinan Plain with Binalatongan as its capital. Princess Urduja, a legendary woman warrior, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century. The legend of Urduja is shared by the Ibaloi people in the northern province of Benguet. Most likely, the Pangasinan people and the Ibaloi people were once united or had a common origin. Pangasinan enjoyed full independence before the Spanish conquest.
Religion before Catholicism
The people of Pangasinan practiced Shamanist or animist beliefs and rituals before the Spanish conquest. The people of Pangasinan maintained this set of beliefs and rituals through priests, priestesses, and healers who represented a pantheon of anitos (“deities”). They had temples dedicated to an anito (“deity”) called Ama Kaoley (Supreme Father) who communicated through mediums called manag-anito. These mediums wore special costumes when serving an anito and they made offerings of oils, ointments, essences, and perfumes in exquisite vessels; and after the offerings were made the anito is supposed to reply in a secret room to their questions. (See Nick Joaquin. “Culture and History,” page 274).
On April 27, 1565, the Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in the Philippine islands with about 500 soldiers to establish a Spanish settlement and begin the conquest of the archipelago. On May 24, 1570, the Spanish forces defeated Rajah Sulayman and other rulers of Manila and later declared Manila as the new capital of the Spanish East Indies. After securing Manila, the Spanish forces continued to conquer the rest of the island of Luzon, including Pangasinan.
Provincia de Pangasinan
In 1571, the Spanish conquest of Pangasinan began with an expedition by the Spanish conquistador Martín de Goiti, who came from the Spanish settlement in Manila through Pampanga. About a year later, another Spanish conquistador, Juan de Salcedo, sailed to Lingayen Gulf and landed at the mouth of the Agno River.
By 1580, Pangasinan was subjugated and made into an Alacadia Mayor by the Spanish Governor of the Philippines. Roman Catholic Augustinian, Franciscan, and Dominican missionaries arrived with the conquistadors and most of the inhabitants of Pangasinan converted to Roman Catholicism. In 1611, Pangasinan became a Spanish colonial province, comprising the territories of Zambales and some areas of La Union and Tarlac. Lingayen was made the capital of the province (and still is to this day). Continued resistance to Spanish rule was forced to go underground or flee to the mountains.
Rebellion against the Spanish Rule
Andres Malong, a native chief of the town of Binalatongan, now named San Carlos City, liberated the province from Spanish rule in December 1660. The people of Pangasinan proclaimed Andres Malong Ari na Pangasinan (“King of Pangasinan”). Pangasinan armies attempted to liberate the neighboring provinces of Pampanga and Ilocos, but were repelled by a Spanish-led coalition of loyalist tribal warriors and mercenaries. In February 1661, the newly independent Kingdom of Pangasinan fell to the Spanish.
On November 3, 1762, the people of Pangasinan proclaimed independence from Spain after a rebellion led by Juan de la Cruz Palaris overthrew Spanish rule in Pangasinan. The Pangasinan revolt was sparked by news of the fall of Manila to the British on October 6, 1762. However, after the Treaty of Paris on March 1, 1763 that closed the Seven Years’ War between Britain, France and Spain, the Spanish colonial forces made a counter-attack. On January 16, 1765, Juan de la Cruz Palaris was captured and Pangasinan independence was again lost.
The Katipunan, a nationalist secret society, was founded on July 7, 1892 with the aim of uniting the peoples of the Philippines and fighting for independence and religious freedom. The Philippine Revolution began on August 26, 1896 led by Andres Bonifacio, the leader of the Katipunan. On November 18, 1897, a Katipunan council was formed in western Pangasinan with Roman Manalang as Presidente Generalisimo and Mauro Ortiz as General. General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. Dagupan City, the major commercial center of Pangasinan, was surrounded by Katipunan forces by July 18, 1898. The Battle of Dagupan lasted from July 18 to July 23 of that year with the surrender of 1,500 soldiers of the Spanish forces under Commander Federico J. Ceballos and Governor Joaquin de Orengochea.
The Battle of Dagupan, fought fiercely by local Katipuneros under the overall command of General Francisco Makabulos, chief of the Central and Directive Committee of Central and Northern Luzon, and the last remnants of the once mighty Spanish Army under General Francisco Ceballos, led to the liberation of Pangasinan from the Spaniards. The five-day battle was joined by three local heroes, Don Daniel Maramba from Santa Barbara, Don Vicente Del Prado from San Jacinto and Don Juan Quezada from Dagupan, whose armies massed in Dagupan to lay siege on the Spanish forces, making a last stand at the brick-walled Catholic Church.
Maramba led the liberation of the town of Santa Barbara on March 7, 1898 following a signal for simultaneous attack from Makabulos. Hearing that Sta. Barbara fell into rebel hands, the Spanish forces in Dagupan attempted to retake the town, but were repulsed by Maramba’s forces. Thus, after the setback, the Spaniards decided to concentrate their forces in Lingayen to protect the provincial capital. This enabled Maramba to expand his operations to Malasiqui, Urdaneta and Mapandan, taking them one after the other. He took one more town, Mangaldan, before proceeding to Dagupan to lay siege on the last Spanish garrison. Also on March 7, 1898, the rebels under the command of Del Prado, and Quesada attacked convents in a number of towns in Zambales province, located west of Lingayen, which now constitute the western parts of Pangasinan.
Attacked and brought under Filipino control were Alaminos, Agno, Anda, Alos, Bani, Balincaguin, Bolinao, Dasol, Eguia and Potot. Then the revolt spread to Labrador, Sual, Salasa and many other towns in the west. The towns of Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Salasa and Bayambang were occupied first by the forces of Del Prado and Quesada before they proceeded to attack Dagupan.
At an assembly convened to organize a central governing body for Central and Northern Luzon on April 17, 1898, General Makabulos appointed Del Prado as politico-military governor of Pangasinan, with Quesada as his second in command. His appointment came few days before the return of General Emilio Aguinaldo in May 1898 from his exile in Hongkong following the signing of the Pact of Biac-na-Bato in December 1897. Aguinaldo’s return gave fresh impetus to the renewal of the flame of the revolution. Thus, on June 3, 1898, General Makabulos entered Tarlac and from that day on, the fires of revolution spread.
So successful were the Filipinos in their many pitched battles against the Spaniards that on June 30, 1898, Spanish authorities decided to evacuate all their forces to Dagupan where a last stand against the rebels was to be made. Also ordered to go to Dagupan were all civilian and military personnel, including members of the voluntarios locales of towns not yet in rebel hands. Those who heeded this order were the volunteer forces of Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Pozorrubio, Manaoag and Villasis. Among those brought to Dagupan was the image of the Most Holy Rosary of the Virgin of Manaoag, which at that time was already the patron saint of Pangasinan.
When the forces of Maramba from the east and Del Prado from the west converged in Dagupan on July 18, 1898, the siege began. The arrival of General Makabulos strengthened the rebel forces until the Spaniards, holed up inside the Catholic Church, waved the flag of surrender five days later. Armed poorly, the Filipinos were no match at the very start with Spanish soldiers holed inside the Church. They just became mere sitting ducks to Spanish soldiers shooting with their rifles from a distance. But the tempo of battle changed when the attackers devised a crude means of protection to shield them from Spanish fire while advancing. This happened when they rolled trunks of bananas, bundled up in sawali, that enabled them to inch their way to the Church.
Pangasinan and other parts of the Spanish East Indies were ceded to the Americans after the Treaty of Paris that closed the Spanish-American War. During the Philippine-American War, General Jose Torres Bugallon from the town of Salasa fought together with General Antonio Luna to defend the First Philippine Republic against American colonization of Northern Luzon. Bugallon was killed in battle on February 5, 1899. The First Philippine Republic was abolished on 1901. In 1907, the Philippine Assembly was established and for the first time, five residents of Pangasinan were elected as its district representatives. On 1921, Mauro Navarro, representing Pangasinan in the Philippine Assembly sponsored a law renaming the town of Salasa to Bugallon to honor General Bugallon.
World War II and the Japanese Rule
Lingayen Gulf was one of the strategic places during the Second World War. Japanese forces under Gen. Masaharu Homma landed on the shores of Pangasinan in December 1941, a few days after the attack on Pearl Harbor and started the Japanese occupation of the country. In 1945, American troops landed on the beaches of Pangasinan and joined Pangasinese guerrillas together with the Philippine Commonwealth troops to free Luzon from the Japanese.
After the declaration of Independence in Manila on July 4, 1946, Eugenio Perez, a Liberal Party congressman representing the fourth district of Pangasinan, was elected Speaker of the lower Legislative House. He led the House until 1953 when the Nacionalista Party became the dominant party.
Pangasinan, which was historically part of the Central Luzon region, was made part of the Ilocos Region or Region I in the gerrymandering of the Philippines by Ferdinand Marcos despite the fact that Pangasinan has a distinct primary language, which is Pangasinan. The classification of Pangasinan as part of the Ilocos Region has generated confusion among some Filipinos, mistaking that all or most of the residents of Pangasinan are Ilocanos. Many Pangasinans object to the national government’s classification of Pangasinan in the Ilocos Region since Pangasinan has a distinct primary language, its economy is bigger than all the Ilocos provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and La Union, and its population is more than 50% of the population of Region 1. Some Pangasinans have proposed using the term Northwestern Luzon Region, which is a term based on a geographic concept, Pangasinan Region, or Pangasinan Autonomous Region.
On February 1986, Vice Chief of Staff General Fidel V. Ramos, head of the Philippine Integrated National Police, and a native of Lingayen, and Asingan, Pangasinan, became one of the instrumental figures of the EDSA people power revolution that led to the overthrow of President Ferdinand Marcos.
After the downfall of Marcos, all local government unit executives in the Philippines were ordered by President Corazon Aquino to vacate their posts. Some local executives were ordered to return to their seats as in the case of Mayor Ludovico Espinosa of Dasol where he claims he joined the UNIDO, Mrs. Aquino’s party during the height of the EDSA Revolution. Fidel Ramos was appointed as AFP Chief of Staff and later as Defense Secretary replacing Juan Ponce Enrile. Oscar Orbos, a congressman from Bani, Pangasinan was appointed by Aquino as head of the Department of Transportation and Communications and later as Executive Secretary.
On May 11, 1992, Fidel V. Ramos ran for the position of President. He was elected and became the first Pangasinan President of the Philippines. Through his leadership, the Philippines recovered from a severe economy after the oil and power crisis of 1991. His influence also sparked the economic growth of Pangasinan where it hosted the 1995 Palarong Pambansa (Philippine National Games).
Jose de Venecia, who represented the same district as Eugenio Perez, was the second Pangasinan to be Speaker of the House of Representatives on 1992. He was reelected on the same position in 1995. De Venecia was selected by the Ramos’ administration party Lakas NUCD to be its presidential candidate in 1998. De Venecia ran but lost to Vice President Joseph Estrada. Oscar Orbos, who served as Pangasinan governor from 1995 ran Vice President and running mate of De Venecia’s political convention rival Renato de Villa lost to Senator Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, whose mother, former First Lady Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal hails from Binalonan, Pangasinan.
Arroyo later ascended to the presidency after the second EDSA Revolution when President Joseph Estrada was overthrown.
On May 2004, actor-turned-politician Fernando Poe, Jr., whose family is from San Carlos City, Pangasinan, ran for President against incumbent Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the Philippine general election, 2004. The Pangasinan vote was almost evenly split by the two presidential candidates who both have Pangasinan roots. Arroyo was elected President, but her victory was tainted by charges of electoral fraud and vote-buying.
The state of crisis of the national government in Manila, corruption in Malacanang, widespread poverty, and the slow pace of economic development is forcing many Pangasinans to seek opportunities in Metro Manila, work in other countries or emigrate to wealthier countries, like the United States.
Governors of Pangasinan
Among who served as governors include Tito Primicias, Vicente Millora and Daniel Maramba.
- Aguedo Agbayani (1972-1986)
- Demetrio Demetria (1986-1988)
- Rafael Colet (1988-1992)
- Aguedo Agbayani (1992-1995)
- Oscar Orbos (1995-1998)
- Victor Agbayani (1998-2007)
- Amado Espino Jr. (2007-Present)
The province of Pangasinan is subdivided into 44 municipalities, 4 cities, 1,364 barangay, which means “village,” and 6 congressional districts.
The capital of Pangasinan is Lingayen. The major cities of Pangasinan are Dagupan City, San Carlos City, and Urdaneta. San Carlos City, formerly known as Binalatongan, is the most populous political unit of Pangasinan.
- Alaminos City
- Dagupan City
- San Carlos City
- Urdaneta City
Pangasinan is located on the west central area of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Pangasinan borders La Union and Benguet to the north, Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva Ecija to the east, and Zambales and Tarlac to the south. To the west of Pangasinan is the South China Sea and the province encloses the Lingayen Gulf.
The land area of Pangasinan is 5,368.82 square kilometers. Pangasinan is 170 kilometers north of Manila, 50 kilometers south of Baguio City, 115 kilometers north of Subic International Airport and Seaport, and 80 kilometers north of Clark International Airport.
Pangasinan has export earnings of around $5.5 million. The 1200 megawatt Sual Coal-Fired Power Plant, 345 megawatt San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam, the Northern Cement Corporation, are located in Pangasinan. The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines and has extensive fishponds, mostly for raising bangus or “milkfish,” along the coasts of Lingayen Gulf and South China Sea. It is also a major producer of rice, mangoes and bamboo crafts.
The Department of Trade and Industry in the Philippines has identified the following potential investment areas in Pangasinan:
- Maguey production and handicraft center
- Santiago Island Marine Park
- Oyster processing facility
- Bagoong technology and processing center
- Tannery and leather production center
- Oyster and aquaculture farming
- Seaweed farming
- Bamboo production
- Handicraft and furniture making
- Manufacture of construction bricks
- Tourism development
- See also: Pangasinan people, Ilocano people, and Sambal people
The Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan) are called Pangasinan, Pangasinense or simply taga-Pangasinan, which means “from Pangasinan”. The population of Pangasinan is 2,434,086 (National Statistics Office, 2000 Census). Pangasinan is the third most populated province in the Philippines. The estimated population of the indigenous speakers of the Pangasinan language in the province of Pangasinan is 1.5 million and is projected to double in about 30 years. According to the 2000 census 47% of the population are Pangasinan and 44% are Ilocanos. Sambal settlers from Zambales also predominate in the westernmost municipalities of Bolinao and Anda. The Pangasinan people are closely related to the Austronesian-speaking peoples of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The Pangasinans are also related to the Polynesians of the Pacific islands, the Formosan indigenous peoples of Taiwan, the Cham of central Vietnam and Cambodia, and the Malagasy of Madagascar.
Some prominent people of Pangasinan heritage (though not necessarily ethnic identification) include President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo whose mother was from Binalonan, Pangasinan; President Fidel V. Ramos, who was born in Lingayen, Pangasinan; Speaker Jose de Venecia, Jr., who was born in Dagupan City, Pangasinan; and the late actor and presidential candidate Fernando Poe, Jr., whose father was from San Carlos City, Pangasinan. Director General Arturo Lomibao, the former head of the Philippine National Police, is from Mangaldan, Pangasinan. Lt. Gen. Hermogenes Esperon, Jr., the Chief of Staff of the Philippine Armed Forces, is from Asingan, Pangasinan. Gabriel Singson, the former governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, is from Lingayen, Pangasinan. F. Sionil José, and Carlos Bulosan are internationally known writers from Pangasinan. Victorio C. Edades, a Filipino modernist and a recognized National Artist, was from Pangasinan.
Health and Education
There are thousands of public schools and hundreds of private schools across the province for primary and secondary education. Many Pangasineneses go to Metro Manila and the United States for tertiary and higher education. The state and private colleges and universities in Pangasinan include the following:
- AMA Computer University
- Pangasinan State University
- Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
- San Carlos College
- Saint Therese of the Child Jesus College Foundation
- Palaris College
- Lyceum Northern Luzon
- Asian Institute Of E-Commerce
- Colegio de Dagupan
- Dagupan Colleges Foundation
- Golden West Colleges
- Kingfisher School of Business and Finance
- Lyceum Northwestern University
- Panpacific University Northern Philippines
- Saint Columban’s College
- University of Luzon
- University of Pangasinan
- Urdaneta City University
- University Of Perpetual Help – Jonelta Foundation (Pangasinan Campus)
- Philippine College of Science and Technology,nalsian calasiao
- Luzon Colleges of Science and Technology
Pangasinan has 51 hospitals and clinics and 68 rural health units (as of July 2002). Although some residents go to Manila and United States for extensive medical tests and treatment, most Pangasinenses go to the medical centers in the cities of Dagupan, San Carlos and Urdaneta.
The culture of Pangasinan is a blend of the indigenous Malayo-Polynesian and western Hispanic and American cultures, with some Indian, and Chinese influences. Today, Pangasinan is very much westernized. The main centers of Pangasinense culture are Lingayen, San Carlos City, Dagupan City, and Manaoag.
The Pangasinan language belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family and is the primary language of the province of Pangasinan and the dominant language in central and coastal Pangasinan. The Pangasinan language is similar to the other Malayo-Polynesian languages of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Madagascar. It is closely related to the Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet and Baguio City, located north of Pangasinan. The Pangasinan language is classified under the Pangasinic group of languages. The Pangasinic languages are:
The other languages or dialects are spoken in some areas of the neighboring provinces of Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, and Ifugao.
The Pangasinan language is an agglutinative language. Linguistics studies show some word correspondences between Austronesian languages, like Pangasinan, and the ancient Sumerian language, the first known written language. Sumerian, which was spoken in the ancient land of Sumer in southern Mesopotamia, is an agglutinative language like Pangasinan. Many Filipinos sometimes call the language “Pangalatok”, although pun is not intended, locals consider it offensive.
The educated Pangasinans are mostly proficient in English, as well as Tagalog. Pangasinan is the second-language of many Ilocanos in Pangasinan. Minority languages in Pangasinan are Ilocano and Bolinao, which is spoken in northwestern Pangasinan.
The religion of the people of Pangasinan is predominantly Christian, although few are strict believers and continue to practice their indigenous beliefs and rituals, like most of the people of the Philippines. Spanish and American missionaries introduced Christianity to Pangasinan. Prior to the Spanish conquest in 1571, the predominant religion of the people of Pangasinan was similar to the indigenous religion of the highland Igorot or the inhabitants of the Cordillera Administrative Region on the island of Luzon who mostly retained their indigenous culture and religion. Pangasinan was also influenced by Hinduism, and Buddhism before the introduction of Christianity.
The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lingayen-Dagupan, Pangasinan is Most Reverend Oscar V. Cruz.
Pangasinan is known as a land of miracles. Whether this remains to be proven or not, the main pilgrimage centers of Pangasinan are the Shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag (reputed to be the pilgrimage capital of the North), the Shrine of Our Lord Jesus Christ the Divine Treasure in Calasiao (known to be patron of the sick), and Saint Dominic de Guzman Parish Church in San Carlos City. The Founder of the Dominican Order is credited for the countless miracles that saved the city and province from disaster and for guiding the lives of many Pangasinenses
Media and Internet
Pangasinan newspapers and magazines:
- Sunday Punch (English)
- Northern Journal (English)
- Pangasinan Star Online (English and Pangasinan)
- Sun Star – Pangasinan (English)
- Balon Silew (Pangasinan)
Pangasinan television and radio:
- ABS-CBN: Channel 2, Channel 32
- GMA Network: Channel 10
- Studio 23: Channel 30
- QTV 11: Channel 11
FM Radio Stations:
- DWKT – 90.3 Energy FM
- DWTL – 93.5 Campus Radio
- DWEC – 94.3 MOR For Life!
- DWID – 98.3 Love Radio
- DWTJ – 99.3 Spirit FM (from Alaminos City)
- DWHY – 100.7 Star FM
- DWON – 104.7 i FM
- DWHR – 106.3 Hot FM
- DWHT – 107.9 RMN Dagupan
AM Radio Stations:
- DWCM – 1161 Aksyon Radyo
- DZWN – 1125 Bombo Radyo
- DWPR – 1296 Power Radio
- DZRD – 981 Sonshine Radio
- DZSD – 1548 Super Radyo (Relay Station only)
- DWIN – 1125 Eagle Radio (Relay Station only)
- DZMQ – Radyo ng Bayan
Sports and Entertainment
- Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation Sports Complex
- San Carlos Central 2 Elementary School Dome
- San Carlos Central 1 Mini-Theater and Olympic Swimming Pool
- Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center
Places of interests
- Nuestra Señora de Manaoag
- The Shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag is famous throughout the country for its supposed miraculous powers. Catholic devotees frequent the shrine, especially on the feast days on the first of October and the 18th day after Easter Sunday.
- San Carlos City Plaza
- San Juan River in San Carlos City
- Saint Dominic de Guzman Parish Church in San Carlos City
- Bonuan Blue Beach in Dagupan
- White Beach in San Fabian
- Cape Bolinao Beach in Bolinao
- Tambobong White Beach in Dasol
- Tondol Beach in Anda
- Antong Falls in Sison
- Cacupangan Cave in Mabini
- Mount Balungao in Balungao
- Manleluag Spring National Park in Mangatarem
- Sanctuario de Senor Divino Tesoro in Calasiao
- Salasa Church in Bugallon
- Lingayen Gulf War Museum in Lingayen
- Bolinao Museum in Bolinao
- Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center in Lingayen
- Hundred Islands Marine Sanctuary in Alaminos
- Oceanographic Marine Laboratory in Alaminos
- Red Arrow Marker of the WWII 32nd US Infantry Division in San Nicolas
- Rock Garden Resort
- Hundred Islands National Park of Alaminos
- Umbrella Rocks of Agno
- ^ Index of Population Projection Statistics, National Statistics Office, Updated August 27, 2007
- Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. (Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, Eighth Edition, 1990).
- Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1572-1800. (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1974; New Day Publishers, 1975).
- Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1801-1900: The Beginnings of Modernization. (Cellar Book Shop, April 1991).
- Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1901-1986: A Political, Socioeconomic, and Cultural History. (Cellar Book Shop, April 1991).
- Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change. (Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 2000).
- Quintos, Felipe Quintos. Sipi Awaray Gelew Diad Pilipinas (Revolucion Filipina). (Lingayen, Pangasinan: Gumawid Press, 1926).
- Samson-Nelmida, Perla. Pangasinan Folk Literature, A Doctoral Dissertation. (University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City: May 1982)
- Pangasinan language
- Pangasinan literature
- Salt evaporation pond
- Milkfish, Bangus
- Fidel V. Ramos
- Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
- Jose de Venecia, Jr.
- Balungao Pangasinan
- Pangasinan Wikipedia
- Official Website of the Provincial Government of Pangasinan
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- 2000 Philippine Census Information
- Sunday Punch
- Sun Star Pangasinan
- Pangasinan Star Online
- karitoon.com – Northern Luzon Online Community
- Pangasinan Philippines